Unit 4: Political Patterns and  Processes (2022)

Unit 4:Political Patterns and Processes

2/28/2020

199 Comments

Unit 4 Homework:
3 NEWS articles -DUE March 6
3 comments- DUE March 13

Homework (60 points)
Find 3 articles (no older than 2010) that pertain to 3 of the following 6 topics. Write a 4-6 sentence synopsis (summary) for each article. Within the 4-6 sentence synopsis, one sentence must connect each article to one of the 3 big ideas listed below.

3 Big Ideas- PLEASE MAKE SURE THAT THESE ARE BEING INCLUDED IN THE HOMEWORK AND THAT YOU ARE AT LEAST ANSWERING ONE OF THESE QUESTIONS FOR EACH ARTICLE.
1. Spatial Organization-How do historical and current events influence political structures around the world?
2. Impacts and Interactions-How are balances of power reflected in political boundaries and government power structures?
3. Spatial Processes and Societal Change-How can political, economic, cultural, or technological changes challenge state sovereignty?

6 Topics
1. Article relating to impacts or attempts at self determination.
2. Article on devolution
3. Article on a specific shatterbelt region
4. Article on neocolonialism
5. Article on theUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
6. Article on the inequality of gerrymandering

Comments (40 points)
After the articles are posted, find 3 classmates and read their synopses. Comment on one of their articles and make sure to elaborate on your opinion. For example, saying "I agree" will not earn you points. Saying "I agree/disagree with your article about ___________ because _________________" (you can use this format), using specific examples from the article will earn you full points. You should have 3 comments total for 3 different classmates (doesn't even have to be in the same class).

Ways to Organize
1. Create a Google Doc and label it homework
a. Add your articles (copy/paste the link) and your synopses.
b. Once you have all of your articles and synopses you can copy and paste it over to the comment section. I only want one comment per person, so place all your articles and synopses into one comment for the homework portion!
2. When searching for an article, the easiest way is to type your keywords in the search bar and select the news option.

199 Comments

Jordan Dean

3/1/2020 04:11:29 pm

Unit 4 Homework

ARTICLE 1: DEVOLUTION https://theconversation.com/kenya-illustrates-both-the-promise-as-well-as-the-pitfalls-of-devolution-96729
Devolution is defined as the transfer of power to a lower level. In 2010 Kenya, a country in East Africa experienced the ups and downs of what this act can do to a country. One of the greatest effects has been the strengthing of Kenyan democracy. Another pro discussed in the article was the building of the Makueni Fruit Processing Plant. “The plant would not have been built without devolution,” says Kivutha Kibwana, the Makueni county governor. On the other hand, the biggest negative effect is the failure to devolve land administration functions. This means that there was an effect on the operations of lands. In conclusion, locals have mostly benefited from the devolution act and encourage it.

ARTICLE 2: UKRAINE SHATTERBELT
https://www.thebalance.com/ukraine-crisis-summary-and-explanation-3970462
Ukraine is a perfect example of a shatterbelt region because of the struggle between factions. The two sides are separated by one side wanting to align with the European Union and the other side with Russia. This became an issue in 2014 when Ukraine was forced to ask for financial aid. This appealed to the EU and caused Russia to become uneasy. Later that year Russia attacked Ukraine. Despite the cost, Ukraine is extremely important to Putin for many reasons. Putin’s popularity increased by 80% due to his standoff with Ukraine. Ukraine has also been an important contributor to the Russian economy by supplying heavy industrial equipment and raw materials.

ARTICLE 3: INEQUALITY OF GERRYMANDERING
https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2017/07/09/gerrymandering-unfair-and-unjust/frvQvECvoJOmLH8nx0Gz1M/story.html
Gerrymandering is unjust although being legal until 2018. Gerrymandering is the act of manipulating political boundaries to gain an advantage to one party. This becomes effective because of the “wasted vote” effect. Wasted votes are votes that had no effect on the selected candidate. A prime example of this is Wisconsin. In the article, it explains how even though the Democratic and Republican voters are evenly divided, the state legislative districts are so manipulated that Republicans gained 60% of the seats in the assembly.

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Trent Leone

3/2/2020 09:10:12 pm

I agree with your article on the Ukrainian shatterbelt because you mention that the Ukraine is divided between aligning with the EU or with Russia. This divide makes it a shatterbelt because two powers are trying to have influence over a certain area.

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Gabe Foley

3/5/2020 11:29:36 pm

I agree with your inequality of gerrymandering article because it isn't fair to the opposing party or parties of how they split up the territory and how they get majority and who doesn't.

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Ayonna

3/6/2020 07:22:35 pm

I agree with your article the inequality of gerrymandering because when its being put into use manipulation is being used somewhere/somehow and that's not fair.

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Dawson Jarman

3/9/2020 11:36:10 am

I agree with your inequality of gerrymandering it is a form of gerrymandering to have an area to have 60% of the seats as republicans although the divide is even.

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Spencer Reese

3/10/2020 01:43:35 pm

I agree with your synopsis on gerrymandering because gerrymandering is the process of manipulating districts tot gain a political advantage.

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Trevor Hylton

3/12/2020 08:46:36 am

I agree with your summary on gerrymandering because gerrymandering is the process of changing districts to gain a political advantage and this can alter a countries government greatly.

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Steven Acevedo

3/12/2020 12:42:50 pm

On your article with the Ukraine Shatterbelt there are flaws with it. The first one is that you believe that the records of Russia's like for Putin is not influenced by the government. Also you did not add how Russia attacked Ukraine and why the Eu didn't help.

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Wendy Milosavljevic

3/12/2020 02:24:56 pm

I agree with your article on the Inequality of Gerrymandering since it is unfair in how political parties attempt to gain their advantage over another.

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stella v.

3/12/2020 09:35:18 pm

I agree with your article on devolution and I liked how you talked about its effects through Kenya

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Collin Hardin

3/13/2020 12:17:28 am

I agree with your article on devolution because devolution can definitely affect a nation negatively if they do not do the process correct.

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Christopher Thompson

3/13/2020 09:00:34 pm

I agree with your article on shatterbelts. This divide makes it a shatterbelt because two powers are trying to have influence over a certain area

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Chase Adkins

3/13/2020 09:10:54 pm

I agree with your article about devolution because it is usually beneficial to local administrations when the higher government transfers some of its power down.

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Kellsie Weisler

3/13/2020 10:53:22 pm

I agree with your article that states gerrymandering in unjust, i agree because as a nation that prides ourselves on equality, freedom and justice gerrymandering disgraces the united state's image.

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Breon

3/13/2020 11:05:55 pm

I agree with your article about gerrymandering because it’s really unfair especially in the example of Wisconsin of how majority of the seats were republican due to it.

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Rosa Altamirano

3/17/2020 01:39:35 pm

I agree wth your article about gerrymandering, it is unfair and manipulative to states.

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Ellie T.

3/1/2020 07:16:44 pm

https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/analysis-france-tries-new-tactics-after-losing-influence-in-west-africa/1720306
NEOCOLONIALISM
African countries that have gained independence are now facing economic and social problems that are allowing neocolonialism to advance. France in particular is using unethical neocolonial tactics in Africa with the fear of losing territory. African states are looking to change their currency from the CFA Franc to the “eco” and get their money out of the French Central Bank but, France is trying to stop this at all cost. Many believe they will use the eco to set up a colonial-like system. They are also taking advantage of the increased terror activity in many of these states, using it as an excuse to keep their military forces in those regions. This article shows that the balance of power being mostly in France’s hands is affecting Africa’s boundaries and their governments ability to reach full independence.

https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
DEVOLUTION
Some areas of England are flourishing while others are in need of new infrastructure. The Treasury is constantly fueling London’s economy while smaller areas get overlooked. Devolution offers these areas a chance to prosper by passing down some of the central government's power and funding to local leaders throughout England. These are the people that see first hand what their cities need, and places like Manchester prove that having local power helps bring about that much needed change. This article shows that historical evidence of London being the economic “engine” of England, and its current state of having the dysfunctional regions being overlooked, is driving the political structure of this part of the world to change.

https://www.google.com/amp/s/theaseanpost.com/article/law-sea-not-ready-modern-technology%3famp
UNITED NATION CONVENTION ON THE LAW OF THE SEA (UNCLOS)
As technology advances, the use of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is increasing. They are being used for both military and civil purposes and are proving to be less risky and costly. The UNCLOS was made years ago to ensure safety and security at sea, giving territorial sovereignty to miles of ocean to the nations at their coasts. These laws were made long before UUV operation became common, and challenges are arising as states are claiming the right to seize foreign underwater drones near their naval territories. This article shows how technological advancements are challenging state sovereignty at sea.

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Trent Leone

3/2/2020 09:10:54 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism because your mention that African countries are trying to get away from the CFA Franc because the CFA Franc ties the countries back to France. This allows France to have partial control of their country through economics which is the definition of neocolonialism.

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Jordan Dean

3/5/2020 07:49:29 am

I agree with your article about devolution, you mentioned how it positivly affected their community, as it did in Kenya as well.

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Gabe Foley

3/5/2020 11:33:08 pm

i agree with your United Nation Convention on the law of the sea (UNCLOS) because of how they are being used for both military and civil reasons. How they are less risky and costly.

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Ayonna

3/6/2020 07:55:10 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism because the use of it by France is preventing Africa from full independence.

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Dawson Jarman

3/9/2020 11:40:19 am

I agree with your article about devolution. I do believe that devolution plays a factor on areas economic success. I have watched videos about how there is an economic divide in England and how the peoples lives are affected.

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Holly Harwick

3/9/2020 12:07:38 pm

I agree with your article about neocolonialism because you mentioned how France is using unethical tactics on Africa because they are scared to lose their land.

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Tae Bell

3/9/2020 10:00:07 pm

I agree with your article on devolution because the passing down of power to more localized governments creates opportunities for change to happen in the cities while increasing their prosperity in the country.

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Specner Reese

3/10/2020 01:47:38 pm

I agree with your synopsis on devolution because the political and economic landscape of England is heavily focused on London and other regions suffer as a result.

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Halie Tew

3/12/2020 11:16:20 am

I agree with your article on devolution because it can have positive effects and be great for a country.

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stella v.

3/12/2020 09:43:54 pm

I agree with your article on the UNCLOS and how UUV usage can be controversial

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Breon

3/13/2020 11:07:44 pm

I agree with your article on devolution because of how you mentioned how England was doing good but other areas won’t. It shows how just because one is good doesn’t meant that all are good and that in some cases devolution is needed.

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Rosa Altamirano

3/17/2020 01:42:24 pm

I agree with your neocolonialism,because showing how Africa wants to change their currency and the French don't want it, shows how neocolonialism can interfere with a countries economy.

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Dawson Jarman

3/2/2020 01:15:01 pm

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0260982786900479
Escalation of regional conflict

A shatterbelt by definition is a region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, and often fragmented by aggressive rivals. Man modern wars are derived off of shatterbelts. Great powers compete because they perceive strong interests for doing so and because opportunities are present for establishing alliance with areas. This can lead to high levels of war-fare. Areas that are considered shatterbelts are Middle East, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Middle America, and South Asia.

https://www.britannica.com/topic/devolution-government-and-politics

Devolution

Devolution by definition is the transfer of power from a central government to subnational authorities. An example of this would be state regional or local governments. Much devolution occurs not by changing an area's constitution but by a conventional statue. Government systems are considered unitary systems rather than federal systems because their power can be stripped at any given moment. Entering into the 20th century groups in both parties have been working towards power in local or regional governments. The most notable devolution occured in France in the 1980’s. Before the 1980’s France was considered one of the most centralized states in the world. Any major decisions that needed to get made had to go through the government of Paris.Devolution is viewed in many countries as a way to dampen regional, racial, ethnic, or religious cleavages, particularly in multiethnic societies, such as Sri Lanka and Indonesia. Devolution has also occurred in Finland, where the government has granted significant autonomy to the largely Swedish-speaking population of the Åland Islands; in Spain, where regional governments (particularly the Basque Country, Catalonia, Galicia, and Andalusia) have enjoyed extensive powers; and in Italy, where several regions have been granted “special autonomy” by the central government.

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/27/us/what-is-gerrymandering.html
What is Gerrymandering? And Why Did the Supreme Court Rule on it?

District maps in Maryland and North Carolina that were drawn specifically to tilt political power in favor of one party a practice known as partisan gerrymandering are acceptable. The district court has declared the maps unconstitutional. When the supreme court heard of the decision the court decided that that the question of partisan gerrymandering was a political one that must be resolved by the elected branches of government, and not a legal question that the federal courts should decide. Gerrymandering is a way that governing parties try to cement themselves in power by tilting the political map steeply in their favor. The whole objective of this raw boundaries of legislative districts so that as many seats as possible are likely to be won by the party’s candidates.

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Trent Leone

3/2/2020 09:11:18 pm

I agree with your article on devolution because you mention that devolution is viewed to help dampen racial, ethnic, regional, and religious conflicts in local regions. This view is logical because a local area would know more about its problems than a central government.

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Kailey Ann Strickland

3/3/2020 12:14:31 pm

I agree that great powers compete due to strong interest of the colliding of external cultural-political forces.

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Jordan Dean

3/5/2020 07:51:24 am

I agree with your article about gerrymandering, it is a way to favor a certain voting party like you mentioned in you synopsis.

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Brandon Chhoeung

3/10/2020 01:36:02 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because many places gerrymander and I remember in class North Carolina being considered unconstitutional for how the district lines were drawn

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Halie Tew

3/12/2020 11:18:30 am

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because it is a way to favor a certain governing party.

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stella v.

3/12/2020 09:48:26 pm

I thinks your comment on shatter belts is too informal and you didn't really provide insight or an actual current example

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Collin Hardin

3/13/2020 12:20:44 am

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because it could really mess up political decisions and cause inaccurate information to occur.

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Chase Adkins

3/13/2020 09:12:35 pm

I agree with your article about gerrymandering because it truly does corrupt the democratic process and should not be allowed to occur in a just society.

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Tae Bell

3/2/2020 07:42:02 pm

Devolution
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
England has many developed cities with the appropriate rules, laws, and control over them. On the other hand, the less developed cities are experiencing some trouble with the absence of action taking place. A devolution would give the less deserving cities the opportunity for local leaders to be involved with the progression of the communities as a whole. The distant power has not been productive, but the economy, public services, and resources can have better impacts with more local power.

Shatterbelt
https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918
Shatterbelt regions explain the divide of countries with reasons like political, economic, and cultural differences. The Middle East, comprised of multiple countries like Iraq, Iran, and Israel, have been separate from one another and remains as a constant shatterbelt for decades. The religious conflicts the countries have is huge in how each country thinks of each other. Modernity has also become an issue on who should be more developed and who deserves the greatest number of resources in today’s world. Countries like Israel have difficult times based on what their cultures and religions should be since they are located within the heart of the shatterbelt.

Attempts at Self-Determination
https://theconversation.com/african-union-needs-a-more-robust-response-to-conflict-in-cameroon-132449
Africa has been supportive of a few countries declaring self-determination but there is a large number that did not receive as much. The Peace of the Security Council faces challenges and does not feel they should help out. In Cameroon, the issue that arises is the government’s repression of protests of the French language in English-speaking legal educational institutions. The reaction is that there should be a separate independent state called Ambazonia. As of 2019, African citizens are against the government for not being involved with changing the system.

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Kailey Ann

3/3/2020 12:09:45 pm

I agree that the religious conflicts the countries have creates an idea for each country on how each of them thinks of the other.

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Jordan Dean

3/5/2020 07:53:22 am

I agree with your article on the shatterbelts,it does affect the country's culture and government.

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Zachary McMullin

3/5/2020 09:13:05 pm

I agree with your topic of the Middle East being a shatterbelt due to cultural, political, and social differences, as this can lead to a great divide.

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Dawson Jarman

3/9/2020 11:42:10 am

I do agree with your shatter belt article, shatter belts do cause differences in cultural and causes conflicts.

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Holly H

3/9/2020 12:22:17 pm

I agree with your article on shatterbelts, because you stated how in the Middle East the shatterbelts have been there for decades dividing culture, language, etc.

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Kayli Burlingame

3/11/2020 10:11:08 pm

i agree with your first article on devolution because if devolution did take place and power was given to the less deserving countries then that would definitely increase the opportunity for local leaders to be more involved.

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Trevor Hylton

3/12/2020 08:50:13 am

I agree that the religious conflicts that countries have creates an prejudice or strong opinion they have for eachother.

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Derek Flores Santana

3/12/2020 06:39:13 pm

I agree with your article of shatter belts because for many years the middle east has been divided due to cultural differences.

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Collin Hardin

3/13/2020 12:24:41 am

I agree with your article on shatterbelts because religious conflicts can definitely affect a nations borders and how the people view each other.

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Christopher Thompson

3/13/2020 09:04:39 pm

I agree with your article on shatterbelts, it does affect culture.

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Kellsie W.

3/13/2020 10:57:56 pm

I agree with your the statement that England devolutionizing would lead to better communities for smaller cities/rural areas because local problems are ignored as there is so much of them.

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Breon

3/13/2020 11:10:12 pm

I agree with your article on shatterbelts because of how you mentioned that many countries within the Middle East are considered shatterbelts due to the religious conflicts they face.

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Rosa Altamirano

3/17/2020 01:44:24 pm

I agree with your article on shatterbelts, it can affect a lot of countries with their governments.

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Trent Leone

3/2/2020 09:09:32 pm

https://www.jacobinmag.com/2020/01/franc-zone-french-neocolonialism-africa

Neocolonialism

The CFA franc is the last colonial currency. It is bound to France and is used by at least 14 countries in Africa. These countries are economically bound to France since they still use their currency. This has led to these countries having a low level of development and trade, and gives France some control over the countries. Through France’s interactions with Africa they have impacted them to be less developed due to colonialism

https://www.newzimbabwe.com/ed-says-committed-to-implement-devolution/

Devolution

Zimbabwe is starting devolution. They are doing this because the government recognized that their provinces need to be more autonomous. They also want local governments to give people incentives to help the country with their sustainability goals. Zimbabwe’s government is going through a social change as they are starting to give local governments more power.

https://qctimes.com/opinion/columnists/gerrymandering-some-are-more-equal-than-others/article_99cf7c73-97b4-5774-b909-f906ca368425.html

Gerrymandering

Redistricting comes around after every national census and is the process of drawing the congressional and state legislative boundaries. Gerrymandering is when you redistrict but put a certain ethnicity, race, or political party in one district and different one in another district. This is done to have the likely voters of one political party in certain districts so that the party wins that district. This is unfair as it can have a political party have no chance against the other and only shows the opinion of a minority and not the majority of the population. Gerrymandering messes with the spatial organization of a nation’s political boundaries.

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Kailey Ann Strickland

3/3/2020 12:07:33 pm

I agree that a political will have no chance against another because of Gerrymandering and that is shows the opinion of a minority and not the majority.

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Erin Debenport

3/3/2020 07:28:51 pm

I agree with your statement about the gerrymandering messes with the spatial organization of the political boundaries of a nation and it inequality.

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Kevin Grund

3/6/2020 12:22:01 pm

i agree with your statement about gerrymandering saying that it is unfair because it can have a political party have no chance

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Ellie T.

3/6/2020 01:03:14 pm

I agree with your article on devolution. Devolution allows more attention to be put into areas that are often overlooked, so Zimbabwe will most likely benefit, much like other areas such as Manchester have.

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Holly Harwick

3/9/2020 12:26:30 pm

I agree with you on your Gerrymandering article because gerrymandering is incredibly unfair considering the advantages of other political parties.

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Tae Bell

3/9/2020 10:14:53 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because it coincides with the unfairness of some political parties having better advantages than others and unequal political boundaries.

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Brandon Chhoeung

3/10/2020 01:37:15 pm

I agree with your article on Neocolonialsim because France is using currency to spread their influence throughout Africa.

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Derek Flores Santana

3/12/2020 06:44:42 pm

I agree with your article about gerrymandering because it is unfair to the one political party as they always lose that district.

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Kailey Ann Stirckland

3/3/2020 12:04:32 pm

Gerrymandering Article
https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2017/07/09/gerrymandering-unfair-and-unjust/frvQvECvoJOmLH8nx0Gz1M/story.html
Gerrymandering is known as the manipulation of boundaries for the benefit of one political party. Already this seems unfair. In a political race neither side should have an advantage such as this, the running should be fair and square, all up to what the majority of the people wish. The result for gerrymandering from the article for Wisconsin is in favor of them being capable of drawing themselves a new boundary. Republicans gained around 60% of the seating, when the vote did not match the number of seats that should have been gained( too many.)

Neocolonialism article https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2017/11/15/lets-talk-about-neo-colonialism-in-africa/
The use of certain types of pressure, like economical and political, to control/influence other countries is know as neocolonialism. Neocolonialism has lost much of Africas currency. Which should not have occurred, Africa needs an evaluation on how to further the development of the continent. Neocolonialism can be used to critique the way things are run in Africa.

Devolution Article
https://www.britannica.com/topic/devolution-government-and-politics
Devolution is known as the transfer of power from a higher level down to a lower one. In most cases devolution will not occur under a change in a countries constitution. However; the goal for power is for it to be centralized to a certain area. The United Kingdom had a crucial issue in politics with devolution. Countries began to order more control over them. This caused a problem for the United Kingdom.

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Erin Debenport

3/3/2020 07:32:18 pm

I agree with the fact that neocolonialism can be used to critique or even run the economy/politics in Africa.

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Brandon Chhoeung

3/10/2020 01:38:28 pm

I agree with your article on devolution because I remember reading for my article that the UK is considering devolution in their country.

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Emma

3/11/2020 08:27:53 pm

I agree with your gerrymandering article because gerrymandering is unfair and unjust.

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Kayli Burlingame

3/11/2020 10:14:40 pm

i agree with your article on gerrymandering because it is definitely unfair for one political party to manipulate boundaries and have an advantage over the other.

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Halie Tew

3/12/2020 11:21:24 am

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because it can be unfair and not right.

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Wendy Milosavljevic

3/12/2020 02:34:32 pm

I agree with your article on devolution since it explains what devolution is and how it is the transfer from a higher power to a subnational level.

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Chase Adkins

3/13/2020 09:14:04 pm

I agree with your article about neocolonialism because it's true that Africa has been greatly harmed by colonialism in the past and continues to be harmed today through neocolonialism by more developed countries.

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Halie Tew

3/3/2020 12:40:17 pm

Neocolonialism
https://www.britannica.com/topic/neocolonialism

Neocolonialism is the control of a certain less developed country by a developed country through indirect means. Neocolonialism was first used after World War II due to foreign countries relying on the colonies. Through the indirect control of economics, financial, and trade policies neocolonialism helps to ensure less developed countries succeed. This relates to spatial processes and societal change because when the developed country comes in and takes control they no longer have sovengerity over their government.

Self Determination
https://unpo.org/article/4957

Self determination is the process by which a group of people form their own state and government. This principle can lead to various outcomes like political independence and full integration within a state. Most cases of self determination are more likely to be declined then accepted. This relates to spatial processes and societal change because if a state was accepted it would change not only the economy but the cultural and political sovengerity of the state.

Devolution
https://theconversation.com/kenya-illustrates-both-the-promise-as-well-as-the-pitfalls-of-devolution-96729

Devolution is the transfer of power to a lower level. Five years ago Kenya shifted from centralised control to devolution. This shift has affected Kenya in both good and bad ways. The democracy and separation of power has increased in Kenya. The biggest success from devolution is the increase in levels of resources like new health centers, roads, and street lights. This relates to spatial organization because the historical events of the past government is the reason why Kenya shifted to devolution.

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I agree that devolution relates to spatial organization because the past event of government have shifted the government in Kenya.

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Nhi Truong

3/4/2020 08:37:57 pm

I agree with your second article on self determination. Most cases of self determination are most likely to fail, and if they do succeed it would certainly change more than just the economy aspect of the state.

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Shania Lane

3/5/2020 10:02:14 am

The article about neocolonialism explains what neocolonialism is and how it was formed and when it was first used.

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Ayania W.

3/5/2020 08:19:57 pm

I agree with your self-determination article because self-determined states like Somaliland are not recognized nor accepted by other major states.

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Ellie T.

3/6/2020 01:05:54 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism. Many countries are able to hold indirect power over others due to their corrupt nature, such as in Africa. Neocolonialism makes gaining complete independence difficult.

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Kellsie W.

3/13/2020 11:04:08 pm

I disagree with your statement that neocolonialism helps less developed countries succeed, I believe this because with harsh influences making bias and basically controlling a smaller state,countries are given to much power, the power of the people is taken away and those who can dominate a weaker country gain more stability and a unfair advantage.

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Erin Debenport

3/3/2020 07:21:25 pm

1-Devolution
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devolution
A devolution is a national government allowing a regional government to govern itself. Devolution in a simple way is the passing of power from a bigger authority to a smaller one. This most ties into societal change by passing political values/systems onto others kind of like diffusion.
2-Neocolonialism
https://www.britannica.com/topic/neocolonialism
Neocolonialism is developed countries being indirectly in charge of less-developed countries. Neocolonialism was first used after World War 2 talking about the dependence of former colonies on countries. Nowadays the word is interpreted in a negative way. Neocolonialism and impacts and interactions tie in because the government power is distributed from the biggest authority over the smaller one usually controlling their actions, sometimes beliefs, and sometimes even economy.
3-Inequality Of Gerrymandering
https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences-and-law/law/law/self-determination
Self determination is the right of people to choose their own political situations.The right to self-determination is one of the biggest issues facing policymakers and communities. This is spatial processes and societal change because being self-determined decides your political standing, and that determines economy.

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Nhi Truong

3/4/2020 08:36:15 pm

I agree with your first article on devolution. Passing power from a big authority to a smaller one is similar to a diffusion.

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Shania Lane

3/5/2020 10:00:50 am

I agree with the article about gerrymandering because I agree that self determination is a right of the people and shouldn’t be taken away.

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Kevin Grund

3/6/2020 12:47:57 pm

I agree with your statement about gerrymandering because self determination is the right of the people.

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aaryan jain

3/12/2020 10:33:39 am

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because self determination is the right of people and it must not be taken away from them.

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Steven Acevedo

3/12/2020 12:47:23 pm

I disagree with your article on Gerrymandering, and it is off topic too and is really about self determinism. There is one underlying thing that makes self determinism not really a thing and that is laws against things. The reason being that people cant chose everything they want to do, due to things being illegal. Also there are more important things than gerrymandering in communities, and that is money.

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Jacob Green

3/3/2020 09:02:46 pm

Devolution
https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2017/07/10/the-rapid-devolution-of-the-united-states/

Under Trump’s administration our nation has experienced devolution. This decentralization of power from the federal government to states and local governments is not in line with the intent for federal control as outlined in the U.S. Constitution. It shifts the balance of power and could be good or bad. It can be good locally because the interests of people within a given region are addressed. The bad is that there are other places in the world that have experienced rapid devolution, completely dissolving countries such as Yugoslavia.

Neocolonialism
https://yalepaprika.com/articles/paradise-holiday-tourism-or-neocolonialism-in-the-caribbean/

St.Kitts, a carribean island, appears to be growing successfully since it was released as a colony, but has anything really changed. But now the push for tourism is the main income of St.Kitts making them again dependent on foreign entities for their financial securities. This dependence helps to still give these more powerful countries power and control over St.Kitts. So is this really independance or is it neocolonialism disguised as tourism?

Gerrymandering
http://theconversation.com/4-reasons-gerrymandering-is-getting-worse-105182

Considered unfair and unjust Gerrymandering is only getting worse due to 4 distinct reasons. These reasons include political success when used, technology making it easier, the supreme court not taking action against it, and a division amongst politicians on whether it should be legal or not. As a result of this, Gerrymandering is helping boost different political parties who are strategically drawing the boundaries of where their voters are coming from, leading to an inequality where equal representation is not occurring.

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Julian Carr

3/5/2020 03:21:48 pm

I agree with your article on devolution because the shift in balance of power can be good or bad.

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Kevin Grund

3/6/2020 12:48:55 pm

I agree with your statement about gerrymandering because it is considered unfair and unjust.

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Ellie T.

3/6/2020 01:10:48 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering. It is causing unequal representation and there should be more of a push to take action. Even North Carolina suffers from it as they try to cram minority voters into Districts 1 and 12.

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Spencer Reese

3/12/2020 12:36:06 pm

I agree with your synopsis on gerrymandering because gerrymandering is a an illegal action undertaken with the goal of securing an advantage against political rivals.

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Steven Acevedo

3/12/2020 12:50:31 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering and what causes and keeps it going. You are correct that it is very successful, easy to do with technology, divisions on gerrymandering legality, and that they are getting away with it. Also that it does help one party gain more power and misrepresent an area.

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Brandon Chhoeung

3/4/2020 06:34:34 pm

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
Devolution
Currently in England “levelling up” is a slogan, used by government officials that promotes regional growth and devolution. England is both the most regionally divided and the most centralized country in the developed world. The country being more centralized has meant that their Treasury has to continually stimulate London’s economy with more and more transport investment. But by treating London as the most cornerstone of their economy, the England’s Treasury often overlooks the people who live in London. This has driven up poverty and inequality in London to the highest levels in the country. If the government uses devolution its an opportunity to fix this mess. In other English cities such as Liverpool and Manchester, where the government has put more power into the hands of local leaders, good things have happened. For example in Liverpool, Steve Rotheram set up the Households into Work scheme which provides mentoring and support for families in the region. In Manchester, Andy Burnham, introduced A Bed Every Night for people who don’t have a place to sleep. Both city-regions are also starting to implement London-style transport networks by regulating their buses. Which has been forbidden by the central government until now. This relates to the big idea of impacts and interactions.

https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/democracy/reports/2020/02/24/480684/partisan-gerrymandering-limits-access-health-care/
Gerrymandering
Many states in the US are denying their own residents expanded access to Medicaid. Even though the federal government would pay for nearly the entire cost under the Affordable Care Act. Medicaid plays a critical role in Americans’ access to health care, paying for half of all births in the United States, providing resources to combat the opioid epidemic, and helping keep rural hospitals financially afloat. Evidence shows that in states that have implemented the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion, low-income populations have benefited from not only better access to care but also greater financial stability, fewer evictions, and lower poverty rates. While Medicaid enjoys strong public support, officials in a handful of states are refusing to act in the interests of their own citizens. Many of these states have failed to expand Medicaid because of partisan gerrymandering. By gerrymandering districts, politicians can stay in power and keep their political parties in power even if they lose voter support. And that means that on issues such as the expansion of Medicaid, conservative politicians can cater to the extreme right wing and oppose policies that would save lives at minimal cost to state taxpayers. This relates to the big idea of impacts and interactions.

https://www.jacobinmag.com/2020/01/franc-zone-french-neocolonialism-africa
Neocolonialism
The CFA franc is a currency used by 14 countries in Africa. It is economically bound to the French currency. Which makes these countries economically bound to the French. This is because they still use a currency bound to the French. Which in turn has caused these countries to have a low level of development and trade. But it helps France because it gives them some control over these African countries. With France practicing neocolonialism it leads to many problems in the countries that are affected. One problem that this causes is a lack of development in these nations. This relates to the big idea of impacts and interactions.

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Nhi Truong

3/4/2020 08:42:44 pm

I agree with your third article on neocolonialism. Africans using a currency that is economically bound to France have definitely caused some problems for Africa.

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Julian Carr

3/5/2020 03:19:18 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism because france using neocolonialism does cause many problems for affected countries.

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Ayania W.

3/5/2020 08:17:53 pm

I agree with your gerrymandering article because due to gerrymandering, politicians stay in power and have an unfair advantage.

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Emma

3/11/2020 08:31:01 pm

i agree with your neocolonialism article because it has definitely caused trouble for Africans

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Derek Flores Santana

3/12/2020 06:51:23 pm

I agree with your article about Neocolonialism because France has been exploiting countries in Africa causing many problems.

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Wendy Milosavljevic

3/12/2020 07:47:30 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism since it explains how Africa is still in a way bound to France which causes problems for them as a result of France's neocolonialism.

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Nhi Truong

3/4/2020 08:29:20 pm

Article on neocolonialism
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2020/01/franc-zone-french-neocolonialism-africa
The CFC franc is a colonial currency in Africa. It is economically bound to France and is used in 14 African countries. This has allowed France to take advantage of these countries, which is causing a great plummet for African economies. We can see through France’s neocolonialism in Africa that it has caused Africa to be less developed. Even today, Africans are still suffering from this issue.

Article on United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea
https://www.heritage.org/global-politics/commentary/7-reasons-us-should-not-ratify-un-convention-the-law-the-sea
This article focuses on why the USA should not join the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It highlights how America would not gain any benefit from the convention, and would only cause more trouble for Americans. Since acquiring Alaska in 1867, the U.S. has successfully protected its interests in the Arctic. So joining the convention would upset many Americans, since it would only force them to pay excessive fees for maritime rights/freedom that they’ve already possessed. This shows that because of the past event of acquiring Alaska, it has allowed American’s politics to not need to get involved with the convention.

Article on the inequality of gerrymandering.
https://theconversation.com/4-reasons-gerrymandering-is-getting-worse-105182
Gerrymandering is an unfair tactic that allows politicians to choose their voters. Gerrymandering has been going on since the 1810s; however, it has gotten worse in the last 20 years. Politicians have been using this tactic more often now because it is effective in helping political parties hold power, it has gotten much easier to use due to technology advances, plus there’s technically no legal issue with using this tactic. Because there’s no real solution to get rid of gerrymandering, we must simply accept this ugly fact in the U.S. electoral system.

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Nhi Truong

3/4/2020 08:35:02 pm

For the last article on gerrymandering..

This reflects how politicians can use their power to change the congressional boundaries to benefits themselves.

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Shania Lane

3/5/2020 09:58:19 am

I agree with the article on neocolonialism in Africa because it explains why Africa is extremely undeveloped right now.

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Julian Carr

3/5/2020 03:15:38 pm

I agree with your article on inequality of gerrymandering because politicians have been using these tactics more often.

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Ayania W.

3/5/2020 08:14:29 pm

I agree with your neocolonialism article because Europe countries have been taking advantage of Africa because of their resources since the beginning of time.

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Nakayla Minott

3/5/2020 11:48:06 pm

I agree with your UN article we definitely don't need join the UN, we're doing great on our own and no one needs to pay for something we don't really need.

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Ayonna

3/6/2020 07:30:32 pm

I agree with your article on the United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea because Americans would not gain any benefits because of the expenses they would have to pay.

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Tae Bell

3/9/2020 10:33:58 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism because the effect France has had on Africa has increased the difficulty for Africa to develop better and quicker. They also have to think about their development in the future and how it may be impacted.

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Emma

3/11/2020 08:33:15 pm

i agree with your law of the sea article because we wouldn't benefit from it and it would cause problems

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Shania Lane

3/5/2020 09:55:27 am

Article 1: Shatterbelts https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00221345208982758?journalCode=rjog20

Article 1 Synopsis: This article explains what the East-West Europe shatter belt is, what countries it consists of and why it was formed. The shatter belt came about to separate the transition and diversity clearly expressed in nationalities, languages, religions, etc. The shatter belt that was discussed in this article consisted of the countries: Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Albania. The shatterbelt in Europe came about by the Soviet sphere of influence during the Cold War.

Article 2: Neocolonialism https://science.jrank.org/pages/7920/Neocolonialism.html

Article 2 synopsis: Neocolonialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization, and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country instead of the previous colonial methods such as direct military control. This article explains neocolonialism is Africa in the latter half of the twentieth century and why they decided to colonize it. European countries had colonized most of the continent in the late nineteenth century, instituting a system of economic exploitation in which African raw materials, particularly cash crops and minerals, were expropriated and exported to the sole benefit of the colonizing power. The idea of neocolonialism, however, suggests that when European powers granted nominal political independence to colonies in the decades after World War II, they continued to control the economies of the new African countries.

Article 3 Devolution
https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.bbc.co.uk/news/amp/uk-politics-35559447
Synopsis: This article explains the guide to devolution in the UK. There have long been important distinctions in the way different parts of the UK work - for example, the separate education and legal systems in Scotland. But in 1997, devolution - the transfer of some powers from central to regional bases - entered a new phase. That year, referendums were held in Scotland and Wales, with both parts of Ireland following in 1998. These resulted in the creation of the Scottish Parliament , the National Assembly for Wales and the Northern Ireland Assembly. Another major shake-up came in the form of the 2014 Scottish referendum. Although voters said "No" to full independence for Scotland, the period leading up to the vote led to an intense debate over what Scotland should be able to decide for itself. Devolution in the UK continues to evolve, which means each of the three devolution settlements involve varying areas and levels of power. This is due to the underlying history and respective political influences of the four nations of the UK.

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Safiyah Young

3/6/2020 01:22:45 pm

You're article contained alot of important information. Your example of neo-colonialism and the british-african thing was really good

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Julian Carr

3/5/2020 03:10:43 pm

1.Devolution
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
This article talks about how devolution and how it can be used by the government to help england. According to the article in england there are some people that could use new infrastructures and by passing funding down to mayors and local leaders across england so they can make the choices on what the funding for to help people. The writer gives reasons on why mayors and local leaders would be better than the government. Some examples are they are more responsive, are better able to give attention to problems people face, and they are more accountable. Political changes can prove to be more helpful than what the state sovereignty does.

2.Neocolonialism
https://www.liberationnews.org/neocolonialism-spurs-ongoing-crisis-in-cameroon/
France is using neocolonialism in Cameroon , a state in africa. France originally gave cameroon independence so they could use neocolonialism on them. France uses neocolonialism by putting french speakers in charge and in 1988 Cameroon was put in even greater debt. Historical events like how France used to control Cameroon can greatly affect how people talked in Cameroon and how people saw France and if someone in Cameroon rose to power they would want to ally with france.

3.Inequality of gerrymandering
https://www.penncapital-star.com/government-politics/naacp-suing-state-for-prison-gerrymandering/
This article talks about how people want prison based gerrymandering to stop. The people who want it to stop say prisoners should not be counted as residents because it artificially inflates political power in areas with prisons. The prisoners are being used to get another house seat because they make up 25% of the population in philadelphia. It shows how much power some political people have for example how philadelphia is using the prisoners to earn another house seat since they make up 25%.

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Utkarsh Jain

3/5/2020 07:43:08 pm

https://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199743292/obo-9780199743292-0125.xml
SELF DETERMINATION -
Self-determination implies the right of a particular group of people to determine for themselves how and by whom they wish to be governed. The principle was little known for much of human history, as groups were either small self-governing communities whose legitimacy was based on religion or culture or, within kingdoms and empires, communities that had no expectation that people could choose their rulers.In the 18th and 19th centuries, political philosophers began to assert that nations or peoples—groups possessing a shared ethnicity, history, language, and/or culture—should control their “own” government, rather than be subjected to alien or foreign rule.The concept was first expressed in the 1860s, and spread rapidly thereafter. During and after World War I, the principle was encouraged by both Vladimir Lenin and United States President Woodrow Wilson .

https://www.britannica.com/topic/neocolonialism
NEO-COLONIALISM-
The term neocolonialism was originally applied to European policies that were seen as schemes to maintain control of African and other dependencies.Neocolonialism came to be seen more generally as involving a coordinated effort by former colonial powers and other developed countries to block growth in developing countries and retain them as sources of cheap raw materials and cheap labour.Critics argue that neocolonialism operates through the investments of multinational corporations that, while enriching a few in underdeveloped countries, keep those countries as a whole in a situation of dependency; such investments also serve to cultivate underdeveloped countries as reservoirs of cheap labour and raw materials.

http://dictionaryofgeography.blogspot.com/2015/10/shatterbelt.html
SHATTERBELT-
A region of persistent political fragmentation due to devolution and centrifugal forces.Regions classified as shatterbelts are characterized by states or territories that have a large degree of ethnic, linguistic, and/or religious diversity, and a history of antagonism and hostility between the groups living there, and can result from the balkanization of larger political entities.The classic example of a shatterbelt is southeastern Europe, especially the Balkan Peninsula. This region has been functionally a shatterbelt for at least 500 years, as it has been geographically sandwiched between more powerful states that attempted to control part or all of the territory. From the 16th century to the early 20th century, the Ottoman Empire controlled large swaths of the Balkans at various times, and imposed Islamic culture on many of the peoples under its rule.

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Zachary McMullin

3/5/2020 09:10:20 pm

I agree with your definition on shatterbelt, but for this assignment we're supposed to find a news article talking about one of the subject's that are listed above.

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Safiyah Young

3/6/2020 01:21:01 pm

I agree with your self-determination article politic. I appreciate the timeline format of your article. It makes everything clear

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Utkarsh Jain

3/7/2020 11:09:36 pm

I agree with your article on neo colonialism. This is very sad to know that how developed countries use it as way to stop another developing countries progress.

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Ayania W.

3/5/2020 08:12:18 pm

Article 1: You can't level up England without real devolution
Devolution is an opportunity that can help impoverished England get the housing and infrastructures they need to prosper. The exchange of power to the local leaders across England can open many door such as accommodations for the homeless and mentoring for families in challenging situations. The balance of power is evident because of course, England is an autocracy, and they have the majority of the power, even with spreading some of it throughout England itself.

Article 2: Shatterbelt
Euro-centrism caused a shatterbelt between the Middle East due to the fight between their resource. This has caused a heavy divide between the East and the West, Israel being stuck right in the middle. This could cause conflict between countries as well as a loss of sense of place due to the prominent pull of Europe.

Article 3: Op-Ed: Democrats Should Let the People Decide on Racial Gerrymandering
Gerrymandering is a way for politicians to gain a political advantage. They do this by creating district boundaries to benefit them. This also takes in considering race and ethnicity, allowing prejudice and racism to take place. Various schemes persist to stop black voters by placing them in racially gerrymandered districts, destroying the strength and importance of their vote. This can cause a cultural divide not only politically but also socially, as well as a rise in blatant racism becoming mainstream because of their leaders openly exercising this practice.

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Safiyah Young

3/6/2020 01:23:39 pm

Interesting summary on shatterbelt. I didn't realize it was so serious.

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Wendy Milosavljevic

3/5/2020 08:17:11 pm

Neocolonialism:
https://medium.com/@trevormolag/neo-colonialism-in-the-modern-age-39138aaf2d82

Neocolonialism, seen as an influential force, is used by powerful countries for many reasons. It is said that neocolonialism is continuously shaping individual cultures as well as global culture. An example of neocolonialism would be the French in Africa following World War Two as well as the Cold War Era. France’s influence has left Africa with a number of issues which is a great example of spatial organization and how historical events influence structures around the world today.

Devolution:
https://www.britannica.com/topic/devolution-government-and-politics

Devolution is “the transfer of power from a central government to subnational authorities.” An example of a centralized government is said to be France, prior to the 1980s. It is also said that in many countries, devolution may be viewed as a method to diminish racial, ethnic, regional, as well as religious cleavages specifically in multiethnic societies. Devolution is an example of how balances of power may be reflected in political boundaries as well as government power structures.

Inequality of Gerrymandering:
http://theconversation.com/4-reasons-gerrymandering-is-getting-worse-105182

Gerrymandering is explained as allowing politicians to select their voters rather than the other way around. As you can see, this is very unfair since it helps political parties holding their “power in the House” while it should be determined by the people. This article explains to readers how gerrymandering does in fact make a difference and continues to get worse. Gerrymandering is also an example of spatial processes as well as societal change.

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Zachary McMullin

3/5/2020 09:07:49 pm

1.Article On Shatterbelt
https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918
Though this may be an older article, it still has significance in modern society. While other country’s instability come and goes, the Middle East has constantly remained a shatterbelt throughout most of its lifetime. This can be due to the major cultural hearth of three major religions present which are Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. This conflict of cultures will continue to last and create a divide in the people.

2. Law of the Sea
https://theaseanpost.com/article/law-sea-not-ready-modern-technology
As the use of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUV) increases the United Nations Convention on Law of Sea was written more than 30 years ago, a time where our subsea capabilities were severely limited. Though UUV’s are mainly used for scientific research where underwater manned vehicles would cost more, it can also be used to gather intel and this can create a dangerous confusion.

3. Gerrymandering
https://qz.com/1809802/a-vote-on-gerrymandering-in-virginia-could-be-more-important-than-its-democratic-primary/
Gerrymandering is a major issue when it comes to voting. It creates an uneven divide of those who are in the same party so that they want have majority vote in any districts, or stacking all of the people in the same party together so that they wont have as many districts. This can lead to voters feeling like their votes don’t actually matter, and in most cases, their vote doesn’t affect the outcome of the voting. In Virginia’s State assembly, a vote will be held to attempt to stop this.

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Utkarsh Jain

3/7/2020 11:15:58 pm

I agree with your article on shatterbelt. It would be really difficult for the people of middle east to cope up with such cultural problems..

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Emma Welling

3/5/2020 09:23:36 pm

Article 1
https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2017/07/09/gerrymandering-unfair-and-unjust/frvQvECvoJOmLH8nx0Gz1M/story.html
Gerrymandering

Gerrymandering itself isn’t fair. Maneuvering boundaries for the benefit of a political party. I feel that political parties should be fair and fight clean instead of changing boundaries for the benefit of one party. The winner should win from the majority that chooses them, not moving people to change their vote. Gerrymandering is unfair and selfish. People should not have to be moved for one party to win.

Article 2
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2020/01/franc-zone-french-neocolonialism-africa
Neocolonialism

France has taken advantage of Africa. Since Africa needs the money they have to take the money to help themselves. The interest rate is high and is making it harder to pay back and making Africa’s economy plummet. Africa keeps taking the money thinking they can pay it back but only getting into more debt to France.

Article 3
https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918
Shatterbelts

In the middle east, multiple countries like Iraq, Israel, and Iran are separated because of their religious beliefs. The areas between them have been shatterbelts for years. Because of their religious beliefs, it impacts how they think of each other. Israel, in the middle of the shatterbelt has the harder time with their religious beliefs.

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Kayli Burlingame

3/11/2020 10:22:08 pm

i agree with your article on gerrymandering because like you said the winner should win without messing with boundaries and making it to where their party is majority. It should be fair game.

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Collin Hardin

3/5/2020 09:27:46 pm

1.Devolution
https://www.strategic-culture.org/news/2017/07/10/the-rapid-devolution-of-the-united-states/

Devolution is the transfer of power to a lower level. This event occurred under our President, Donald Trump, transferring power from the federal government to local and state governance. Though, this action shifts the balance of power which could cause major issues with the governments causing the countries to fall apart. But good actions could also result form this, for example the opinion from the people could be voiced better to unite the country better. Therefore you can see that the balances of power differ from depending on the structure of government power.

2. Shatterbelt
https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918

A Shatterbelt is a region in which persistent political fragmentation caused by political, cultural, and economic differences within the region. One example of a Shatterbelt would be Israel, Iraq, and Iran located in the Middle East, which has been present for years upon end. The fragmentation was caused by the religions the three countries use which causes harsh views of the others. Another issue would be the views of who should have more power and resources, forcing them farther apart. This shows that historical and current events influence the structures of the Middle East and the rest of the world.

3.Neocolonialism
https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2017/11/15/lets-talk-about-neo-colonialism-in-africa/

Neocolonialism is the use of economic, political, and cultural to influence other countries actions for personal gain. This occurrence is currently happening in Africa with their currency being lost due to other countries wrongfully exploiting the underdeveloped government of Africa. This could change the sovereignty of Africa which could cause further damage to the government of Africa.

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Nakayla Minott

3/5/2020 11:59:29 pm

i agree with your shatterbelt article the Middle East has been in conflict for years because of religion, culture, and politics.

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aaryan jain

3/12/2020 10:30:36 am

I agree with your article on Devolution because you have given a good example on how balance of power differs from the governments structure.

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Alex

3/13/2020 11:28:06 pm

I agree with you article on devolution and how our president is transferring power to the local level

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Steven Acevedo

3/5/2020 09:31:57 pm

https://www.fastcompany.com/90467795/why-ai-alone-cant-solve-the-scourge-of-gerrymandering
Gerrymandering
Spatial Processes and societal changes
Louisiana's 6th and 2nd districts are both gerrymandered to support the Republican party with the black voting population being shattered into multiple districts. This is a common occurrence in states with a close split of Democrats and Republicans. Redistricting happens every 10 years based on the census results which this year occurs on March 12th. New Districts need to be drawn to reflect the population changes in the data, but usually they are drawn with the political data. The main point is that instead of people drawing the lines, why not use a computer’s AI? The problem with using a computer is that it is hard to remove the political element from the mapping, and to get it passed by the state legislature. Also to start the algorithm that the computer would use, you have to define fair, which can be interpreted in many ways. Which would lead to arguments on whether the map is fair or not and they would have to restart on the map. But even with all of this the algorithm has a future in helping draw the district lines. This is an example of spatial Processes and societal changes due to how politics will change with the implementation of a neutral computer algorithm on district lines.

https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001360347/stop-corruption-to-reap-benefits-of-devolution
Devolution
Impacts and interactions
Kenya is under its seventh year if devolution, even before and even after Kenya gained independence they were mainly controlled by minority tribes. But 1 year after their independence a party gained power and made a one party system that lasted to 1992 when multi party elections happened. Then 2003-2009 Kenya started to discuss devolution based on original colonial districts became counties. Then seven years into devolution they started to try and curb corruption in counties. Another thing is they question whether or not they should have devolved healthcare. The impacts and interactions in this is that Kenya devolved and the impact on the government was that the central government got weaker and the smaller local governments got stronger. Also there started corruption in the smaller governments till the bigger central government stepped in.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/virginia-politics/bipartisan-redistricting-measure-advances-in-virginia/2020/03/02/f9d66fd6-5cb9-11ea-b014-4fafa866bb81_story.html
Gerrymandering
Impacts and interactions
A proposed constitutional amendment to prevent gerrymandering has advanced out of the house with both parties protecting it. A committee voted 13 to 8 to send it to the floor, it had 4 democrats and 9 republicans go for it and 8 democrats against it. The big reason why the amendment is catching so much attention is because the census is near, which is also the time for redistricting. The problem with this is that it must pass the general assembly for two years and get voted on before it can take effect. For the house the amendment was passed 85 to 13 last year. The amendment would pass the drawing of boundaries to bipartisan commission of legislators and citizens instead of the general assembly and governor. The impacts and interactions that this bill would have on politics is only in the US. The impact would be that some seats are changed from democrat to republican and vice versa. Also it would allow for a more fair system of voting and districting. But in all only a few seats would change in total making nothing much different.

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Kendal Win

3/5/2020 10:58:14 pm

1) Self Determination
https://www.spsrasd.info/news/en/articles/2020/02/29/24888.html

Muhammadu Bukhari, the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, repeated his country’s support of the Sahrawi people’s right to self-determination. The country has recognized the Sahrawi Republic since November 1984. Bukhari met with a Sahrawi ambassador, who delivered a letter from Brahim Ghali, the President of the Democratic Saharan Arab Republic, Secretary-General of the Polisario Fronts about conflicts involving both countries and other common issues. Bukhari emphasized that Nigeria will continue its support of the people of Western Sahara gaining the right to self-determination by using its position in the African Union and United Nations. This article shows that having the political support of an established country can give advantage to people who are trying to gain independence. The public support Nigeria bestows to the Sahrawi people influence the way they are seen by the rest of the world.

2) Neocolonialism
https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/belt-and-road-colonialism-chinese-characteristics

The Chinese foreign policy project, the Belt and Road Initiative, is seen as the Chinese form of neocolonialism. They say that it seeks the development of the countries being “helped,” but in reality, it is only China that will benefit in the long run. They are pushing to gain access to natural resources to boost their economy, making Africa the perfect target. African countries are pushed into debt they won’t be able to pay back, given cheap products, and losing resources. These actions pull Africa out of Western influence and into China, which may be even worse than the former. This situation shows how economic changes (the debt and trade between Africa and China) can lead to countries losing control of their standings (Africa will have to pay back the debt at some point and may not be able to do it, putting them at the mercy of China).

3) Devolution
https://www.pazimbabwe.com/zimbabwe-56159-devolution-changing-lives-in-midlands.html

Devolution has allowed federal governments to distribute funds to specific areas, who are then able to decide the best of the funds for their situation. In the Mazvihwa Communal Lands, water is scarce, and villagers could only get hydration from shallow wells and river beds. The funds given to them through devolution allowed them to start drilling new wells, making issues on the availability of water much less severe in many areas, while other areas used the funds to repair roads and build schools and clinics. The balance of power between the federal government and the local ones were key to making this happen. Allowing the local governments to make area specific decisions benefited everyone, since the most urgent matters could be decided upon more easily. The collaboration between the power structures gave the citizens better lives.

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aaryan jain

3/5/2020 11:02:42 pm

Devolution
https://theconversation.com/us/topics/devolution-6737\
Devolution is the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration. In this article, it discusses the dismantling empires through devolution and goes into detail about what places devolution may be happening or where they may start. Historical and current events influence political structures around the world because we tend to learn from our past and learning from them can affect our political structures causing them to change.

Neocolonialism
https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2017/11/15/lets-talk-about-neo-colonialism-in-africa/
Neocolonialism is the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies. In this article, it discusses neocolonialism in Africa. The concept of neo-colonialism warns us of the potential regressive impact of unregulated forms of aid, trade and foreign direct investment in relation to poverty reduction and well being in African countries. the concept fails to capture those economic, ecological and cultural forces that transcend state boundaries and have always been beyond a particular state's control. The challenge posed by globalization is mainly in regard to the increasing interdependence and transnational activities.

Self-determination
https://unpo.org/article/4957
Self-determination is the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms its own allegiances and government. In this article, it discusses what self-determination is, and self-determination in International Law. It also talks about how all people have the right to self-determination. Politics impacts history and history impacts politics. There is a reciprocal relationship between the two, which brings us to what we call historical causation. Historical causation is the cause-and-effect relationship observable throughout history; it is the way in which one historical event leads to another.

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Nakayla Minott

3/5/2020 11:56:29 pm

I agree with your self-determination article politics definitely impact history and vice versa

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Alex

3/13/2020 11:29:02 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism and how it has affected Africa

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Kayli Burlingame

3/5/2020 11:20:03 pm

Devolution:
https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-35559447
Devolution is the transfer of some powers from central to regional government. In the article it talks about how there was a Scottish referendum or general vote about Scotland's full independence. This obviously led to a debate over what Scotland should be able to decide for itself,and as a result of this the powers of the Scottish Parliament has been increased.The devolution seen in the Scottish referendum will lead to more devolution around the UK. As devolution increases,the balance of power changes, which has a big effect on government power structures.

Inequality of Gerrymandering:
https://www.fairvote.org/gerrymandering_and_its_effect_on_fair_representation
Gerrymandering occurs when legislators define the boundary of voting districts in a misrepresenting way. The two types of gerrymandering that are discussed in the article are “packing” or stacked vote and cracking; where opposing voters are split up, making it almost impossible for them to win the district. This process is generally accepted as being unfair and the article proposes a solution which is Independent redistricting. This would allow the districts to be changed by independent commissioners instead of a bias party. Whatever the solution is, it is clear that change must be made to the electoral process from fair representation to result. Gerrymandering could very well lead to societal change, due to the fact that it is giving one party a large advantage. This overall could lead to a corruption of the main centralized government, which would directly challenge state sovereignty.

Specific Shatterbelt Region:
https://dictionaryofgeography.blogspot.com/2015/10/shatterbelt.html
Shatterbelts are regions in between hostile states or empires. The political divisions resulting from shatterbelts cross cultural regions and split ethinic groups between two or more countries, which causes a change in political structures around the world. A current example of a shatterbelt is southeastern Europe, especially the Balkin Peninsula. It is between more powerful states that try to control all or part of the territory. The Ottoman Empire controlled large portions of the Balkans at various times and imposed Islamic culture. While the majority of Slavic speaking peoples kept their Christian identity, they were also divided into Roman Catholics or Orthodox Christians, and they were actively opposing one another.

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Alex

3/13/2020 11:29:41 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering and how it is unfair for candidates

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Gabe Foley

3/5/2020 11:26:30 pm

Devolution
https://www.britannica.com/topic/devolution-government-and-politics
Devolution is the transfer of power from a central government to subnational authorities. Throughout history, there has been a tendency for the governments to want to centralize their power in the state or nation. Prior to the 1980s France was one of the most centralized powers in the world. The national government in Paris had to convene to try and lower France’s powers. This connects with impacts and interactions, because of the balance of powers. How France had the most powerful government and they had to change it to lower the power.

Neocolonialism
https://www.britannica.com/topic/neocolonialism
Neocolonialism is the control of less-developed countries by developed countries by indirect means. The term was first used during World War 2, for the dependence of former colonies on foreign countries. The term was usually used for European policies as schemes to control African and other dependencies. This connects with spatial processes and societal changes, because this focused on the production and changes of the foreign colonies. Countries helped aid them and send them supplies.

Inequality of Gerrymandering
https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/03/how-courts-can-objectively-measure-gerrymandering/585574/
Gerrymandering is the unequal representation of one group at the expense of the other. In political views it isn’t fair because one side might capture more votes than the others so they will get ruled in favor instead of the opposing party. The supreme court has limited racial gerrymandering. The court has little to no say to gerrymandering, there is now actual way of deciding what to do. This is apart of impacts and interactions because this could affect how political parties rule and how they mess with territory.

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Jonathan Montero

3/13/2020 09:34:23 pm

I agree with your gerrymandering article because gerrymandering not only causes problems with racial organization, but also causes confusion to voters who may be discouraged from voting.

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Holly Harwick

3/5/2020 11:39:06 pm

Gerrymandering
nytimes.com/2019/06/27/us/what-is-gerrymandering.html
Gerrymandering is a way governing parties push themselves in power by tilting the political map in their favor. A successful gerrymandered map has enough people supporting the governing parties in each district but is rigged to win. This is an issue because there was been many lawsuits all throughout the past decades. As previously mentioned gerrymandering is an issue, it can really challenge a state’s political sovereignty because the whole system is manipulated in such a way that certain parties always win.

Self-determination
unpo.org/article/4957
Everyone has the right to self determination; therefore influences political structures around the world. The right to self determination can lead to a bunch of different outcomes such as small self-governing communities and political independence.

Shatterbelt: Israel between East and West
M.jpost.com/opinion/borderline-views-Israel-between-east-and-west
A shatterbelt is a region constituting sites of instability and fragmented areas. These shatterbelts occur around the world because of unresolved issues within an area. The Israel and Palestine conflict for example is a shatterbelt that came into play during the civil war in 1948 which brought huge tension into the land. Considering the struggle to agree on who gets what political boundaries are affected.

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Utkarsh Jain

3/7/2020 11:18:19 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering. Like you said it is of course an issue and it should be tackled before it causes any further problems.

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Nakayla Minott

3/5/2020 11:42:51 pm

Article on the inequality of gerrymandering
https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/03/how-courts-can-objectively-measure-gerrymandering/585574/

The Supreme Court has limited racial gerrymanders for a long time but doesn’t know if partisan gerrymanders are constitutional mostly because there is no universally agreed-upon way to measure them. The Court took up two partisan gerrymandering cases one from North Carolina and the other from Maryland wondering just how badly they skewed results. The Court can use many different tools to diagnose a crooked map like whether the state “swings” or if everyone goes for the same party. Partisans gain an advantage over other parties by packing their opponent’s voters into as few districts as possible in closely divided states.

Article on shatterbelts
https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918

The American political geographer Saul B. Cohan has always included the middle East in his list of shatterbelts, over a time period of 50 years. Israel is located at the meeting point of Europe, Africa, and Asia and is the meeting place of the three great monotheistic religions, Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. No amount of discussion, understanding, and celebrating each other’s differences has made the religious and cultural conflicts of the Middle East easier. Contrary to the idealized teachings of religion it has been transformed into a narrative of conflict, hatred, and violence. The Middle East is perceived as the region where many of the world's biggest problems remain unsolved.

Article on neocolonialism
https://science.jrank.org/pages/7920/Neocolonialism.html

Neocolonialism is the continuation of economic colonialism after a previously colonized territory has gained political independence. This applied mostly too late 20th century Africa. Neocolonialism suggests that after granted independence European powers remained in control of African Economics. People that believe in the effects of neocolonialism think that the African government’s acceptance of loans from Europe or America proves the link between independent African governments and exploitative forces of former colonizers. They believe this because most foreign aid being given is in the form of loans with high-interest rates and of course paying these loans helps to keep African economies underdeveloped.

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Nakayla Minott

3/5/2020 11:53:31 pm

Article on the inequality of gerrymandering Spatial Processes and Societal Change
Article on shatterbelts Spatial Organization
Article on neocolonialism impact and Interactions

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Trevor Hylton

3/5/2020 11:47:50 pm

https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/09/stronger-than-democracy/380774/
Big Idea 1
Devolution is the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration. Devolution helps to sensibly reorganize large and unwieldy post-colonial states. This article explains how in India more than 60 years of independence have brought little development to peripheral and rural states in the east and northeast of the country. Rather than India fostering economic growth outside the capital, New Delhi’s priority instead has been imposing either the Hindi or English languages across the country. This shows how the 60 years of independence greatly affected India's economy and political structure.

https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2017/11/15/lets-talk-about-neo-colonialism-in-africa/
Big Idea 2
Neocolonialism is the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies. This article states that neocolonialism was present and affected Africa greatly. Neocolonialism was applied most commonly to Africa in the later half of the twentieth century. European countries had colonized most of the continent in the late nineteenth century, instituting a system of economic exploitation in which African raw materials were expropriated and exported to the sole benefit of the colonizing power. The balancing of powers would have been a great asset for the Afrcian economy. Many more powerful countries would stroll into african and imperialize it or take away their cash crops or raw materials. Crushing the revenue of the African society.

https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/03/how-courts-can-objectively-measure-gerrymandering/585574/
Big 3
Gerrymandering is giving one group more power than another at the expense of the other. Gerrymandering happens in a court of law. Legislators gerrymander districts by giving one group more representation at the expense of others. For a long time, the Supreme Court has limited racial gerrymanders.Gerrymandering can affect the sovereignty of a society by potential making a more powerful; governmental party. This party could lead to running and taking over a specific government system leading to the sustainability of a society and economy.

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Kevin Grund

3/6/2020 11:19:15 am

https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
DEVOLUTION
Some areas of england are extremely well developed while others infrastructure is collapsing which is causing an uneven development of economic structure. Places that are big and populated like London are getting heavily funded and are developing more efficiently than other smaller parts of the country.So the fast development of these countries has caused the other more dysfunctional countries to become overlooked in an economic sense. So the smaller places are being left behind and the development progress has created a gap between these two areas of the country causing these areas to be left behind.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0260982786900479
SHATTERBELT
A shatterbelt is an area that is caught between the conflict of two larger states among the outside of these states.As the tension increases the state in question gets the unfair ruling over its area which causes a shatter. The larger states usually create shatter belts over smaller states because of improper distribution of power between states.

https://qctimes.com/opinion/columnists/gerrymandering-some-are-more-equal-than-others/article_99cf7c73-97b4-5774-b909-f906ca368425.html
GERRYMANDERING
The districting happens after every american census, and the districting is the categorization of certain areas. And the act of gerrymandering is the unfairs zoning of those zones. Gerrymandering is used to try to have your districts zoned in a way to create an unfair advantage through making your opinion the most prevalent and making it relevant to vote as the other party because of how they are zoned makes it almost impossible for other counties to have the ability to out vote you.

Calin Tate

3/6/2020 06:58:36 pm

I agree with your gerrymandering article and how they make zones to have the ability to automatically win elections and how it would be hard to vote them out.

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Ava Kurr

3/6/2020 11:37:00 am

Devolution
https://www.local.gov.uk/topics/devolution/devolution-online-hub/devolution-explained/what-devolution
Devolution is one of the most fundamental changes to the way decisions are made for local areas and how public services are funded. Devolution is when a central government transfers powers to a local government. It is important because it ensures that decisions are made closer to the local people, communities and businesses they affect. Devolution will provide greater freedoms and flexibilities at a local level, meaning councils can work more effectively to improve public services for their area.

Inequality of Gerrymandering
https://www.mercatus.org/publications/regulation/thinking-apolitically-about-gerrymandering?utm_source=google&utm_medium=ad_link&utm_name=regulation
In this article it discusses how people have expressed strong concerns about gerrymandering. Gerrymandering is the process of manipulating the boundaries of an electoral constituency so as to favor one party or class.The practice of gerrymandering undermines the perceived fairness of legislative representation and violates the foundational principle of geographic districting, that voters within the same constituency should live reasonably near one another.

Neocolonialism
https://science.jrank.org/pages/7920/Neocolonialism.html
Neocolonialism is the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies. As used in the article. An example would be of when Africa was colonized by European countries had colonized most of the continent in the late nineteenth century, instituting a system of economic exploitation in which African raw materials, particularly cash crops and minerals, which were exported to the sole benefit of the colonizing power. The idea of neocolonialism suggests that when European powers grant nominal political independence to colonies in the decades after World War II, they would continue to control the economies of the new African countries.

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Calin Tate

3/6/2020 06:57:04 pm

I agree with your article about neocolonialism and how they use this to control economies.

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Landon Pittman

3/6/2020 01:11:58 pm

Article on the inequality of gerrymandering
https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2019/03/how-courts-can-objectively-measure-gerrymandering/585574/

The supreme court takes up two cases of political gerrymandering in which the politicians who made the district maps expressly admitted to attempting to gain political advantage. The article discusses various methods and tools used by courts to determine the fairness, or lack thereof, in a district map. These methods and tools include statistical analysis, different map assessment techniques, and computer analysis. This relates to impacts and interactions because it demonstrates how those of specific political affiliations can, and often do, take advantage of the creation of political boundaries which directly reflect on the balance of power in local governments.

Article on neocolonialism
https://www.lowyinstitute.org/the-interpreter/belt-and-road-colonialism-chinese-characteristics

China has introduced a foreign policy project called the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) which, according to China, is being used to further the development of struggling countries. One of China’s top diplomats, Yang Jiechi, says that his country is not playing “little geopolitical games;” however, to the rest of the world it is apparent that China is using its massive fiscal wealth to dig into the natural resources of developing countries in Africa and Southeast Asia. China is financially strong-arming these countries, forcing them into debts which they cannot hope to repay. This ties into spatial processes and societal change as it demonstrates China’s ability to use monetary strength to overpower smaller, developing countries, and in doing so gain power over their very sovereignty as they become reliant on China.

Article about a specific shatterbelt region
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00221345208982758?journalCode=rjog20

This article explains the East-West Europe shatterbelt region which consists of Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, and Albania. This shatterbelt region came into existence due to the events that occured during and after World War 2. This shatterbelt region was formed out of countries affiliated with the Soviet Union as well as other Axis and neutral powers due to the cataclysmic split of the European continent following the division of Germany and the Soviet collection of satellite territories of its own, contributing to the so called “iron curtain.” This relates to spatial organization as it demonstrates how historical events still have a lasting impact on the cultural and geopolitical state of the world today.

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Calin Tate

3/6/2020 06:55:09 pm

I agree with your Shatter belt region, and how it breaks up because of war and that it relates to spatial organization.

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Aydin Chewning

3/13/2020 10:37:09 pm

I agree with your article on a shatterbelt and the fact that past struggles still have an effect on the regions caught in Cold War interactions.

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Safiyah Young

3/6/2020 01:18:30 pm

Self Determination
https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/native-hawaiians-again-seek-political-sovereignty-with-a-new-constitution/2017/11/05/833842d2-b905-11e7-be94-fabb0f1e9ffb_story.html

Native Hawaiians are the only indigenous group in the United States that does not have political sovereignty. First, they were decimated in number after the Western world first occupied their land and later started feeling insignificant within the U.S government. Native Hawaiians are now pushing hard to create their own nation, seeking the type of self-governance Native American tribes established long ago. At an assembly of more than 300 people in Anchorage, Native Hawaiians have come together to study what could become the “touchstone of their self-determination; an eight-chapter constitution that lays the foundation for a democracy with executive, legislative and judicial branches.” Adding to the momentum now is a new opportunity for Hawaiians to grow their political independence by seeking an official nation-to-nation relationship with the United States.

The Inequality of Gerrymandering

http://theconversation.com/4-reasons-gerrymandering-is-getting-worse-105182

In 2012, Republicans won a majority of 33 seats in the House despite getting 1.4 million fewer votes than their Democratic opponents. The "Cracking and packing" of voters by moving the boundaries of voting districts is known as gerrymandering. My article claims there are four main reasons why gerrymandering has gotten worse. Specifically in the last 20 years. First, my article says that gerrymandering is effective in helping political parties hold power in the House. Secondly, gerrymandering has become a much more effective tool. This can be supported very easily with the shift of technological advances in the last 20 years with sophisticated computer programs and ever more detailed information on voters’ location and preferences.The third reason is that the Supreme Court has effectively sanctioned gerrymandering. The last reason is that it is difficult for the courts to agree on solutions.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
https://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_historical_perspective.htm#Historical%20Perspective

My article is from a historical perspective. The Agreement, which is part of the Convention, is now deemed to have paved the way for all States to become parties to the Convention. The Convention retains the power for naval and merchant ships the right of "Innocent passage" through the territorial seas of a coastal State. The special interest of coastal States in the conservation and management of fisheries in close waters was first recognized in the 1958 Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas. Every State benefits from the supplies of the Convention and from the certainty that it has established in international law in relation to the law of the sea. With nearly all States now adhering the threat to the Convention has been eliminated.

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Desmond Pugh

3/6/2020 02:58:40 pm

Devolution:https://www.wakefieldexpress.co.uk/news/politics/west-yorkshire-devolution-deal-down-nuts-and-bolts-ahead-crunch-conference-call-2044363
Devolution is the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration. It can happen in many places and change how things are in that place. Regional leaders have been arguing for 5 years to transfer power away from Westminster. Coun Jeffery told senior councillors that the devolution deal is now very close. Devolution is a big matter and can have effects on other countries too.
Self-Determination:https://news.am/eng/news/561998.html
Self-Determination is the process by which a country determines its own statehood and forms.its own allegiances and government. It can have a positive affect and a negative depending on the situation. The Artsakh people’s has been and remains on the agenda for resolving the conflict. Self-determination is a fundamental principle and foundation of a peaceful settlement.
Neocolonialism:https://www.eurasiareview.com/20022020-impact-of-african-policies-on-development-of-infrastructure-projects-emergence-of-debt-trap-and-neo-colonialism-interview/
Neocolonialism is the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies. Neocolonialism still happens today in Africa. They try to get the resources in Africa since their country doesn't have the resources that they need. They use their power to pressure Africa since it's not as developed as their country.

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Derek Flores Santana

3/6/2020 06:39:10 pm

https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918

Shatterbelts is a region that is caught between two stronger colliding external political forces, and are often fragmented by aggressive rivals. One of these shatterbelts is the middle east. This region is alway remained a constant shatterbelt in the past 5o years.The middle east has many of the world’s problems and with governments failing to solve these problems they are experiencing retrogression over the past few years.One of the problems is that the religions in this region clash and cause a lot of conflict. Israel is a big example of this because it is located in the middle of the shatterbelt causing cultural and geographical differences.

https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/09/stronger-than-democracy/380774/

Devolution is the decentralization of power or when the central government loses power to the local governments. Devolution is more common today than it was around the colonization time period .As today there is countries that can’t control natural resources, cant compete economically, and moe anti-colonization movements.This is a good thing for the world because it allow countries colonized like india grow and develop.It Helps with competitive arbitrage in europe too as they try and invest or exploit these developing countries.

https://www.liberationnews.org/neocolonialism-spurs-ongoing-crisis-in-cameroon/

Neocolonialism is when a country uses globalization, political, or cultural imperialism to influence or control another country. One example of this process is in Cameron where France is currently exploiting their resources, putting french people in the government, and Putting the country in debt. This is bad because the country of Cameron was never truly free although they did declare independence in the 1980s.France was still in control as the government was led by people from the french side of Cameron. At this rate Cameron will owe France a lot of money and will be in debt for a long time.

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Jonathan Montero

3/13/2020 09:43:25 pm

I agree with your article on devolution, because of devolution areas and people are able to become or gain sovereignty in a peaceful way without the need of violence or war.

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Calin Tate

3/6/2020 06:50:36 pm

https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/09/stronger-than-democracy/380774/

Devolution

This article is about the dismantling empires through devolution. Devolution, meaning the decentralization of power, helps to reorganize big post-colonial states. The article uses India as an example, where through their long independence they have little development. Since 1947, state numbers in the Indian federation have doubled, the state can better conform to ethnic boundaries and internal growth. This economic control can help India help state sovereignty.

https://www.britannica.com/topic/neocolonialism

Neocolonialism

Neocolonialism is the control of less developed countries by developed countries through indirect means. This was used after WWll to control states politically, most likely to have access to natural resources. First neocolonialism was used by Europeans to maintain control of Africa and other dependencies. Europe mainly did this because of natural resources. This gives whoever takes over more power and more flexibility with resources.

https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2017/07/09/gerrymandering-unfair-and-unjust/frvQvECvoJOmLH8nx0Gz1M/story.html

Inequality of Gerrymandering

The article talks about all the different types of gerrymandering. Politically and racially, gerrymandering is a constitutional violation. There is also partisan gerrymandering, which according to the system allows a one time legislative majority to draw maps that kind of ensure they retain political power. Wisconsin used this. Their case was closed because they argued the improvement of our political landscape. This helps states control their political elections with separating race and whether they are democratic or republican.

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Ayonna

3/6/2020 06:58:15 pm

Article #1 Shatterbelt region
Website:https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918
Geographer Saul B. Cohen claims that regions in the Middle East will always be a shatterbelt as it is today. More specifically Israel, it is the home to Christianity, Judaism, and Islam and they are all fighting for total authority. While other religions are ‘trying’ to ‘understand each other’ it's still not solving anything. Its government fails to discuss the current conflicts resulting in unsolved problems.

Article #2 Inequality of gerrymandering
Website: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/27/us/what-is-gerrymandering.html
The supreme court seems to rule that gerrymandering is acceptable while others claim partisan gerrymandering violates the constitution, which the supreme court seems to just dismiss. People in select political parties argue that partisan gerrymandering is illegal and whoever does it should be punished. There seems to be no balance of power as far as gerrymandering is concerned because of the lack of fairness.

Article #3 Devolution
Website:https://www.brookings.edu/articles/is-devolution-working-federal-and-state-roles-in-welfare/
In the 1990s republicans in congress worked to move control from the central government down to the local governments in the U.S. Political changes like the beginning of devolution in the 1990s has changed state sovereignty for America by giving some power to local governments.
States used the control that they were given to create grants for elements like welfare, welfare benefits, and job opportunities. Yet several states have greatly increased their spending on total services, which could lead to an increased public debt.

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Clayton McLamb

3/6/2020 09:38:54 pm

Neocolonialism, Spatial processes and societal change
https://intpolicydigest.org/2019/02/18/china-and-neocolonialism-in-africa/
This article is about Chinese neocolonialism in Africa. This is when China loans massive amounts to African countries without any political or social strings attached. The effect of this though, has impacted African countries in a very negative way. This has made these African countries incur massive amounts of debt, have a toxic relationship with China, and cause resentment between the people and government. This resentment is a result of the people thinking that these loans for infrastructure are unnecessary. Neocolonialism between China and Africa shows that the economic debt incurred by Africa challenges their state sovereignty, because China now has economic control over Africa.

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Impacts and Interactions
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-vietnam-southchinasea/vietnam-mulls-legal-action-over-south-china-sea-dispute-idUSKBN1XG1D6
This article is about legal disputes over the EEZ between China and Vietnam. This occurred because China sent a ship to Vietnam’s EEZ, which they claim, along with many other EEZ’s. This has created disputes between China and these countries over who owns the zone. Another similar situation that happened between China and the Philippines, which China refused to recognize the court's ruling. The countries are in talks right now and negotiations are anticipated. This shows impacts and interactions because the balance of power between all the smaller Asian countries and China, and the ocean zones show that she countries are wanting to gain control economically over one another.

Inequality of Gerrymandering, Spatial Organization
https://www.dailylocal.com/news/harrisburg-edges-closer-to-eliminating-gerrymandering-with-bipartisan-support/article_bd815f00-5732-11ea-a0cd-33506071d885.html
This article is about Pennsylvania lawmakers attempts to get rid of gerrymandering. They want to give power back to the citizens, not lawmakers. Fair Districts PA, a local organization, gives the lawmakers their support in this process. They touch on the fact that although it makes sense that lawmakers 100 years drew their own districts, it doesn’t today. This gerrymandering in Pennsylvania has caused some votes to count more than others and takes away the trust of the people, while also taking away the power of one party. Gerrymandering is a perfect example of spatial organization, as it directly affects who participates in legislature by the distribution of the districts.

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Landon Pittman

3/13/2020 06:27:36 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering as it demonstrates the effects that the political process has on communities as well as how they have taken action against it.

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Cristal Rivera

3/13/2020 10:21:11 pm

I agree with your article on Gerry Mandering as many people are pushing to get rid of it because it is biased, also it is an example of Spatial Organization .

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Christopher Thompson

3/6/2020 10:00:26 pm

Unit 4
Homework

https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/27/us/what-is-gerrymandering.html
What is gerrymandering?
Many nations want power and to symbolize that, they would shift nonliteral boundaries on a map.The whole objective of this raw boundaries of legislative districts so that as many seats as possible are likely to be won by the party’s candidates.District maps in Maryland and North Carolina that were drawn specifically to tilt political power in favor of one party a practice known as partisan gerrymandering are acceptable. The district court has declared the maps unconstitutional. When the supreme court heard of the decision the court decided that that the question of partisan gerrymandering was a political one that must be resolved by the elected branches of government, and not a legal question that the federal courts should decide.

https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918
Shatterbelt
Shatterbelt regions explain the divide between countries in a political, economic, and cultural view.The Middle East, composed of multiple countries like Iraq, Iran, and Israel, have been separate from one another and remains as a constant shatterbelt for decades. The religious conflicts the countries have is huge in how each country thinks of each other. Modernity has also become an issue on who should be more developed and who deserves the greatest number of resources in today’s world. Countries like Israel have difficult times based on what their cultures and religions should be since they are located within the heart of the shatterbelt.

https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2017/11/15/lets-talk-about-neo-colonialism-in-africa/
Neocolonialism
The use of certain types of pressure, like economical and political, to control/influence other countries is known as neocolonialism. Neocolonialism has lost much of Africa's currency and also parts of a trade system which should not have occurred, Africa needs an evaluation on how to further the development of the continent. Neocolonialism can be used to critique the way things are run in Africa.

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Kellsie Weisler

3/6/2020 10:03:12 pm

Kellsie Weisler
Ap Human Geography
Article 1: Inequality of gerrymandering & Impacts and interactions
Cite:https://www.penncapital-star.com/government-politics/naacp-suing-state-for-prison-gerrymandering/
Gerrymandering is the unfair redistricting of a state to create an advantage for one group of people. In this article we find gerrymandering in a way that usually doesn’t come to mind with the term. This article showcases how pennsylvania put prisoner populations in the county that they lived in before their incarceration, this creates more problems and a bigger opportunity for politicians to gerrymander without notice, luckily this lead to the NAACP taking notice and has decided to sue, this has led to a more fair redistricting that effects philadelphia’s inner politics.

Article 2: Devolution & Spatial process and societal change
Cite:https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
Leveling up is a new term that English politicians are using in the sense to make residents feel as if they are being given more power in the running of their country. There recently has been a large push for England to devolve to help repair areas in need especially in the senses of taxes and infrastructure. Already there are two large cities that are somewhat devolved, Manchester and Liverpool, and so far both seem to be going steadily. The idea is that giving Mayors actual power and backing from the country that more helpful factors can be played into civilian lives to help them and the society they live in.

Article 3: Neocolonialism & Spatial organization
Cite:https://eagle.co.ug/2020/02/09/francophone-neo-colonialism-has-captured-african-union.html
Neocolonialism is a way for large powers to take control of vulnerable countries. Today we see most neocolonialism in Africa as a result of it’s Imperialism from the 1800’s onwards. Francophone neocolonialism (french) is a large and complicated system that has slowly wrapped its way around the whole of the African Union. We find African politics to be extremely influenced as this and other powers infiltrate and bribe the people and representatives overall corrupting the actual views and wants of African countries.

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Jonathan Montero

3/6/2020 10:05:56 pm

https://www.chicagobusiness.com/david-greising-government/illinois-its-easy-forget-what-fair-election-looks

GerryMandering
In Illinois gerrymandering is a huge problem. Essentially gerrymandering is so bad that it basically takes away a basic right which is the right to elect our representatives. While Illinois is democrat dominated, certain districts are secured for the republicans. Gerrymandering can take a meaningful vote aways from millions of citizens during elections. Many cases have gone to the supreme court regarding this organization but most get turned back to the states.

https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.dailymaverick.co.za/opinionista/2019-10-17-how-neo-colonialism-wreaks-havoc-in-africa/amp/

neo-colonialism
Africa must still be fully decolonised. Most of the conflict that occurs today in Africa is caused by Neo-Colonialism (New Colonialism) and ethnic/tribal conflicts. Most of these ethnic conflicts occurring today are the remnants of colonialism left in the continent. The destruction of social structures and identities have left Africa into chaos and conflict. France still controls the economies of its former colonies by making them pay for the infrastructure that was built during colonization, giving priority to France for business, and France has the right to any raw material discovered.

https://www.heritage.org/global-politics/commentary/7-reasons-us-should-not-ratify-un-convention-the-law-the-sea
Law of The Sea

The UN Convention on the Law Of the Sea is a law that requires coastal nations to pay royalties on their seabed resources to developing and landlocked countries. This article focuses on the reasons why the US should not join. To western and democratic countries, the convention would do and add nothing. It sets provisions on freedom of navigation. It adds billions of dollars of resources to landlocked countries that did nothing to deserve it.

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Trevor Hylton

3/12/2020 08:58:14 am

I agree with your article on the conflict in Africa because it’s causing Africa to not be a fully colonized nation.

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Breon Polk-Bembury

3/6/2020 10:28:54 pm

Article on Inequality of Gerrymandering:
https://theconversation.com/4-reasons-gerrymandering-is-getting-worse-105182

Gerrymandering has contributed to the unfairness of elections. Gerrymandering is the redrawing of boundaries and in regards to politics it allows for politicians to essentially select their voters rather than voters getting to choose their own representatives. For example in 2012, Republicans won 33 seats of the House even though that had over a million of votes fewer than the Democrats. The term came from Elbridge Gerry, a 1810 governor of Massachusetts, who created legislative boundaries that would favor his own political party. This article relates to impacts and interactions because the balances of power are reflected in political boundaries because it upsets the balance of power by giving more to one group than the other, such as with the democrat and republicans involving elections.

Article on neocolonialism
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2020/01/franc-zone-french-neocolonialism-africa
Neocolonialism

The CFA franc represents the last colonial currency within Africa. It binds 24 countries within Africa to the French economically. The French admitted independence to some African countries as long as the leaders signed agreements for cooperation governing future relations. It stated that new independent countries would still have to keep the CFA franc and would not be about to create their own currency. Impacts and interactions is being displayed within this article because the government of France is using their power to make the remaining African countries maintain the french currency.

Article on devolution
https://theconversation.com/kenya-illustrates-both-the-promise-as-well-as-the-pitfalls-of-devolution-96729

Recently Kenya changed from being under centralized control to devolution. The change has impacted Kenya in both a good way and a negative way. It has increased democracy and separation of powers within Kenya. Though it has helped it has also made it to where other minorities within the country are treated in a different way which could lead to new conflicts. This article represents spatial organization because having a centralized government causes the need for evolution which would take away power from the bigger government and it showed other countries the ups and downs of devolution when making a change.

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Malik Winston

3/13/2020 09:06:07 pm

I agree with your article on devolution. I liked how you specified Kenya.

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Jonathan Montero

3/13/2020 09:39:06 pm

I agree with your article on neo-colonialism because it shows that even to this day Africa is still being exploited and that colonization still has its remnants in the continent.

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Chase Adkins

3/6/2020 10:41:52 pm

M.jpost.com/opinion/borderline-views-Israel-between-east-and-west
Israel Shatterbelt: East and West
Shatter belts are regions of great fragmentation and instability due to conflict and political tensions. They occur across the world in politically divided areas. It is a divide that forms political boundaries in the areas affected. An example of a shatterbelt would be the war between Israel and Palestine that occurred in 1948 during a civil war. It caused massive amounts of tension between the two groups.

https://qz.com/1809802/a-vote-on-gerrymandering-in-virginia-could-be-more-important-than-its-democratic-primary/
Gerrymandering
The democratic process of voting is a fragile one that requires intense amount of care to have legitimate results; it is completely corrupted by the process of gerrymandering. Gerrymandering is the process of splitting up voters to weaken your political opponent’s voter base OR grouping all of them together so that they don’t have control over as many districts. It makes a voter’s vote less valuable and takes away the fairness of the process. The Virginia’s State Assembly is attempting to vote to stop it. It gives more political power and influence to certain political candidates.

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
Devolution
Devolution is the process of a central government passing some of its power to the state and local governments in an attempt to help the people locally or on a state level. England is a country with a good infrastructure, but some of its smaller cities and areas face issues related to them alone. So, to help these smaller cities and places, the government is using devolution to get local leaders to help fix and enhance their own areas. Political power was shifted downward for more efficiency.

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Landon Pittman

3/13/2020 06:25:38 pm

I agree with your article on devolution as it properly describes how and why the process is used in England.

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Aydin Chewning

3/13/2020 10:31:51 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because corrupt redistricting has skewed the results of elections.

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Janel Reid

3/6/2020 10:42:23 pm

1) . Neocolonialism
https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/analysis-france-tries-new-tactics-after-losing-influence-in-west-africa/1720306

Neocolonialism is defined as the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries, especially former dependencies. This occurs after colonialism has taken place.Former countries that overpowered weaker countries give them independence, but since they have control over the vast majority of their economy by taking over prior, it’s very easy to gain control over these weaker countries again. For example, in this article, the neocolonialism between France and West Africa is discussed. France had control over West Africa, and even though they allowed West Africa to gain independence, once things started to fall apart, they stepped in and took control over the things they used to such as hydrocarbon reserves, telecoms, port management, administration of railways, retail trade systems and even the contracting companies that carry on the production of the substructure. It was very easy for France to gain control again because they had already colonized Africa before.

2). Attempts at Self-Determination
https://theconversation.com/african-union-needs-a-more-robust-response-to-conflict-in-cameroon-132449

Self determination is when a country establishes its own statehood and makes its own government. Conflict in Africa sprouted as people began to long for an independent state known as “Ambazonia.” These people were heavily influenced by the French in the English-speaking legal and educational institutions. They were also influenced by the marginalization of the Anglophone regions. Consequences have been severe for the Anglophone regions. Around three thousand people have been killed with about half a million more people being displaced. In 2019, aid has been offered, however, Africa remains silent on the conflict.

3). Gerrymandering
https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2017/07/09/gerrymandering-unfair-and-unjust/frvQvECvoJOmLH8nx0Gz1M/story.html

Gerrymandering is the manipulation of boundaries for the benefit of one political party. Gerrymandering is in no way fair. Political races of any kind should be fair and based on the vote, and nobody should have an upper hand in anything. In Wisconsin, the amount of republicans exceeds the number of democrats. This isn’t fair, and it’s also a betrayal of the constitution. In Wisconsin, 60 percent of the seats are taken by republicans. However, they only received 49 percent of the votes. This means that the other party received a larger amount of votes. However, they only have 40 percent of the seats in office.

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Chelsee Robles

3/12/2020 11:16:38 am

I agree with your third article because gerrymandering is not fair to the lesser party who does not get the choice in anything.

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Malik Winston

3/13/2020 09:13:27 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering, the example helps explain more.

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Alex h

3/6/2020 10:51:14 pm

Alex hinton
Aphug comments

Devolution
https://www.brookings.edu/articles/is-devolution-working-federal-and-state-roles-in-welfare/amp/
Devolution is the transfer of power from a larger scale to a more local scale. States have been fighting for their own rights since the 1800s. The best example is the United Kingdom thst has power over all its regions(Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland).

UNCLOS
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_Convention_on_the_Law_of_the_Sea
UNCLOS is an internationally accepted law where all countries respect rights of others over international waters. It became effective in 1982 when’s country’s needed the treaty to increase trade and communications throughout the world. Guyana was the 60th country to ratify the treaty putting it into place.

Gerrymandering
https://www.nytimes.com/2019/06/27/us/what-is-gerrymandering.amp.html
Gerrymandering is the intentional placement of of political parties on a map to gain an advantage over the other in an election. Recently, supreme courts have thrown out the maps do to the unfairness of gerrymandering and deemed it unconstitutional. An efficient gerrymandering map places large amounts of similar voters in one area to win a party election which is unfair

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Clayton McLamb

3/13/2020 09:32:50 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because of the fact that they make politics unfair and are extremely unconstitutuional!

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Natalie Long

3/13/2020 11:20:41 pm

I agree with your article on UNCLOS, because peace and agreements are important to keep the economy and such things working correctly.

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Natalie Long

3/6/2020 10:58:44 pm

An article on devolution-
https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204482304574219813708759806
In a concise definition, devolution is essentially a shift of power from an autocracy to an autonomous region. This article discusses how devolution could possibly improve the economy and political climate in America. If we were to split into smaller regions, we would bring back the original idea of small-run governments. In the midst of an economic crisis, Washington is gathering even more power into its hands which makes the idea of devolution sound even better.
Neocolonialism-
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8639874.stm
This article discusses how neocolonialism has had a lasting impact on Africa. France took control of regions in Africa around 1960, and let go after the Cold War was dying down in 1989. Based on estimations, 5% of France’s 65 million inhabitants originated from the region. Since then, people have been starting riots, feeling divided with their national loyalties. The lasting impact that France has had on Africa is causing conflict between the countries to this day, which shows the negative effects of neocolonialism.
Inequality of gerrymandering-
https://dissidentvoice.org/2010/10/redistricting-gerrymandering-as-a-competitive-sport/
Gerrymandering is the act of organizing districts based on your preferred political party. It is unfair and illegal. Politicians use gerrymandering to their advantage to win the majority vote of one certain population. People are angry, because it causes an inequality among their districts.

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Stella V.

3/6/2020 11:06:20 pm

United nations convention on law of sea:
https://theaseanpost.com/article/law-sea-not-ready-modern-technology

The current united nations convention on the law of sea applies rules that dont technologically compare to today's society, being it was signed more than 30 years ago. New technology like UUVs (unmanned underwater vehicles) has raised problems since theyve been found by countries unaware. The reason why this is such a big problem is because the UNCLOS was made in the context of manned vehicles; this raises questions on the validity of UUV operation at sea. These technological changes can challenge a states sovereinty if another power were to challenege the ethical aspects; given that bending the rules for international waters are not easy.

Inequality of gerrymandering:
https://www.commondreams.org/views/2020/02/27/reduce-inequality-election-process-all-states-should-allow-voting-home

This article shows support for at home ballots, which would in theory cut down racist gerrymandering. It's proven that the social elite can pour as much into campaigns as they want. This then pushes their favored person to victory. However, the poor community, especially that of color has no say and is often left out. Events like this, historically, can be traced back to Rome and early london, where peasants were seen as less than; this still influences political structures today, because the winning campaign gets their money from the wealthy, so why would they waste time on the poor.

Neocolonialism:
https://www.liberationnews.org/neocolonialism-spurs-ongoing-crisis-in-cameroon/

Cameroon, like other african countries still suffer the effects europe brought about. Since being colonized Cameroon has faught for independence. In 1960, Cameroon and 12 other former french colonies were officialy independent. The strategic decision by the french however actually installed neo colonial governments in their former colonies that were in france's interest. These government power structers reflect the weakness of power still in africa, and the strength france holds over them. Tipping the balance of power.

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Landon Pittman

3/13/2020 06:29:38 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism as it properly displays the effects that European powers had on African countries and also how they still impact those countries today.

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Caitlin Crumpler

3/14/2020 02:15:03 pm

i agree with your article on gerrymandering because impoverished areas or people are very often left out and usually what they say never matters. which is also a unfair custom of gerrymandering

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Cristal Rivera

3/6/2020 11:10:19 pm

https://theconversation.com/kenya-illustrates-both-the-promise-as-well-as-the-pitfalls-of-devolution-96729

The transfer of power to a lower level is Devolution. East Africa experienced this back in 2010. While we speak the Kenyan democracy is being strengthened by devolution. A negative point though, would be that it affected the operations of lands . Kenyans are more positively affected by this .

Https://theconversation.com/african-union-needs-a-more-robust-response-to-conflict-in-cameroon-132449

In the continent of Africa, a few countries have been declaring self determination. Africa has been supportive of it. In Cameroon the government protest the french language where it is prodominantly english. African people are against the government and making separate states .

https://www.britannica.com/topic/neocolonialism

Neocolonialism is the use of economic, political, cultural etc. pressures to control/influence other countries. It was Introduced after the Second World War. Neocolonialism helps less developed areas Succeed. It can be linked to societal change because when the more developed take control things change.

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Clayton McLamb

3/13/2020 09:07:13 pm

I agree with your article on devolution in East Africa, as they don't have the strongest federal governments, so they delegate powers to districts.

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Aydin Chewning

3/6/2020 11:13:55 pm

Devolution
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
The policy makers in England are trying to push the “leveling up” of cities in their country. The author argues that the current spending of those policy makers isn’t promoting that leveling up, but it is only growing London’s infrastructure. The author then says that to level up cities the parliament has to use devolution to give local leaders the authority to make a budget for their community because they know it best. This article shows how power can be changed for different levels of government.

Neocolonialism
https://asiatimes.com/2020/01/neocolonialism-and-geopolitical-rivalry-in-sri-lanka/
This article explains how Sri Lanka, a former colony of the British Empire, is dealing with neocolonialism from many different powers. The US and China are both big players in Sri Lankan politics with both trying to install a military base in the country. Both the US and China want this base for a strategic advantage over the other in case of a war. India is also trying to exploit Sri Lanka for economic gain by trying to create ports for oil trade. This article shows how political history still effects a free government today.

Gerrymandering
https://qz.com/1809802/a-vote-on-gerrymandering-in-virginia-could-be-more-important-than-its-democratic-primary/
Virginia lawmakers are currently voting on redistricting the state to reduce gerrymandering. The state plans to create districts based on the 2020 census to ensure a fair vote. The author then goes on to explain that the primaries that are going are the only time a voter’s voice will mater. The author explains that gerrymandering has ensured a party will when but not a candidate. This article shows how power can be shown in the boundaries we create.

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Sierra Spillman

3/17/2020 08:58:40 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because due to the unfair redistricting, it does ensure that one party will win or get more votes than the other as the author in the article has explained. This is why more states should promote more changes to reduce these effects more gerrymandering.

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amanda

3/6/2020 11:39:33 pm

https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2020-election/gerrymandering-alive-well-coming-battle-will-be-bigger-ever-n1106951

The power of balance between different political powers is so clear when it includes gerrymandering. Gerrymandering is such a big issue that continues on to our upcoming election. Politicians who win the election feel like they have the right to draw the lines as they see fit , gerrymandering can and has helped people win in the past. Gerrymandering go after prime states like texas, florida and north carolina. For a decade republicans had control over drawing the maps and democrats spent all that time trying to fight in court. Gerrymandering affects the balance between the political powers unevenly by giving a party the power to draw the lines in their favor.

http://theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local

Devolution can help poorer areas to prosper in england. By shifting the focus to a smaller local government towards that area more specifically than a big central government would be able to. England thinks that devolution can impact the poorer areas to help them use their more local funds to help them. So instead of the central government of england using the money for greater things just hand them down to local mayors and such so they can spend it more efficiently for the local people. It’s shown that across the developed countries that local policy makers are better at focusing on all the needs than a big centralized government.

http://jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918

Shatterbelts , one of the most important in the middle east. There’s so much conflict and tension that they are way past trying to accept each other. Resolving the Israel-Palestine conflict will not bring about a magical end to the current regional instability. European powers have long ignored the problem and just try to let them handle it.

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Clayton McLamb

3/13/2020 09:03:14 pm

I agree with your article on the Middle East because historically, Europe has really made a mess there!

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Cristal rivera

3/13/2020 10:18:04 pm

I agree that Europeans haven’t been responding much to the problems the Middle East is facing.

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Sierra Spillman

3/6/2020 11:43:02 pm

Shatterbelts:https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Borderline-Views-Israel-between-East-and-West-450918
According to the author, the Middle East is the only region that has remained a constant shatterbelt in the changing world. One area of great controversy in the middle east is that of Isreal which is a geographical meeting point of Europe, Asia, and Africa as well as various cultures and religions that have origins there. The 3 main monotheistic religions of the world-Judaism, Islam, and Christianity- all trace their origins to Isreal and fight for their sacred land which has lead to conflict. This conflict isn’t new either and can be historically traced back with the religions. Due to western involvement and relations, the middle east continues to become a bigger and more violate shatterbelt than previously thought.
Neocolonialism-https://www.dailymaverick.co.za/opinionista/2019-10-17-how-neo-colonialism-wreaks-havoc-in-africa/
The writer of this article discusses how Africa has yet to be truly decolonized and the neocolonialism that exists mixed with the ethnic/tribal conflicts that cause this violence and prevent progression. Studies have shown that there is a direct link between colonialism and violence and that is due to the western worlds different strategies of controlling colonies in the past: divide and rule, assimilation, and destruction of African culture and identity. Besides past historical colonization, Africa still continues to be colonized by France and its relationships with former colonies and the grab of natural or raw resources. This past history still shows the negative consequences on the continent and explains the lack of peace, violence between tribal and ethnic communities, and the slow technological development in many areas.
Devolution-https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
By introducing more devolution and allowing local leaders to have more power, regional growth could be promoted. The UK is the most regionally divided and has a centralized government which lead to the economic inequality across England, as the government focuses on more areas than others. By passing down both power and funding to these neglected cities and towns, more attention is given to the people and there’s less reliance on distant and centralized governments. This will allow more investment and prosperity, more equal regional growth, and more efficient public services.

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Chelsee Robles

3/12/2020 11:14:40 am

I found it interesting that the Middle East is the one constant shatterbelt in the world.

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Malik Wnston

3/13/2020 09:24:29 pm

I agree with your article on devolution, we used the same article. But this ia a good source ask whether devolution is necessary.

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Natalie Long

3/13/2020 11:08:07 pm

I agree with your article on devolution because, it discusses how it could lead to larger economic growth and prosperity for a country.

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Malik Winston

3/6/2020 11:45:10 pm

Devolution
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local
With England in this new phase of regional growth devolution is the key for that to happen. They want to change the balance of government powers by giving more power to the mayors. With devolution they saw the world's results with it and they want to give it a try. Implementing more policies showed some progress but it still needs full parliament devolution. Devolution is a great thing when it is not taken out of hand and used properly.

Shatterbelt Region
https://www.history.com/news/gaza-conflict-history-israel-palestine
The Gaza Strip is a strip of land that Jerusalem and Palestine are currently fighting over. They are fighting over this because this strip of land has religious significance to both countries. This has caused serious boundary disputes which has led to an almost all out war. This land will probably never be settled because of religious beliefs. Even more so now with the US troops backing Jerusalemin the last 2 years.

Impacts of Self Determination
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1QOBCDgh5h9qxwc_Fu8qzSQCDk-E4JJy0RI2AjiP2ZoA/edit
Self determination is a fundamental thing in international law. This is something that countries should enjoy because it is fundamental. But it is not just an international right, it is also a human right. Therefore any talk about determination can be good for any country. Countries who show signs of determination tend to do better.

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Kendal Win

3/13/2020 08:46:34 pm

I agree with your article on shatterbelt regions. The Gaza Strip has gone through so much violence that it is unlikely that they will ever truly reach peace. The area will stay unsettled since both Jerusalem and Palestine probably won't agree to let go of it, so it will just stay broken up.

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Natalie Long

3/13/2020 11:06:25 pm

I agree with your article on self determination because it is an important right that can improve countries all around.

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Caitlin Crumpler

3/14/2020 02:11:29 pm

i agree with your article on impacts of self determination because it can be a human right not only a international right. This also shows the attempt of a country trying to do better .

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Caitlin Crumpler

3/7/2020 08:38:26 pm

Article on Devolution
https://ukandeu.ac.uk/article-50-one-year-on-devolution/#
Devolution is the transfer of power from a central government to subnational authorities, so power goes to lower levels. Devolution happens by changing an area's constitution by a conventional statue. Federal systems power can be taken away from them resulting in the government to be considered unitary. This article focuses on the EU(Withdrawal) bill which deals with how the power of sending people back to their own country in transferring areas has led up to a war between the UK Government and the Scottish and Welsh Government. The bill has shown them that the balances of power may be brought back in political boundaries and government power structures. Since the EU bill is up with a high stature government in the UK the Scottish and Wesh Government fear a “power grab” which can affect their economy and devolution settlements.

Article on Neocolonialism
https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2017/11/15/lets-talk-about-neo-colonialism-in-africa/
Neocolonialism is the use of economic, political, cultural, or other pressures to control or influence other countries. In this article it tells us how Neocolonialism is advancing after gaining independence that leads to economic problems. It has incorrectly lost currency for observing the development of Africa. Currently, Africa wants to change their currency from under franc to Eco. This tells us that France has a balance of power which is clearly affecting Africa’s boundary and not being allowed to have full government control.

Article on Inequality of Gerrymandering
https://www.google.com/amp/s/amp.theatlantic.com/amp/article/592879/
Gerrymandering is the unequal separation of boundaries that favors one party or class. There are three types of gerrymandering, wasted votes, excessed votes, and stacked votes. This article explains whether excessed votes are bad or helpful to the supreme court. The supreme court suggests that gerrymanders are unfair to both sides of the political views. This article shows that balances of power of republicans and democratic candidates reflect boundaries by being unfair and unlawful.

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Cristal

3/13/2020 10:16:36 pm

I agree with your definition of Gerry Mandering. It is an unequal separation that can be biased.

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Sierra Spillman

3/17/2020 08:56:12 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism because even though these areas in Africa are considered Independent, France as well as other European countries are such a strong hold on them economically that it affects their ability to truly govern themselves.

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Rosa Altamirano

3/8/2020 10:36:33 pm

Devolution- https://nation.cymru/opinion/why-we-need-devolution-to-the-north-of-wales-to-see-off-the-threat-to-the-senedd/
Summary:
Devolution is taking central power and giving some of it to the local government. In Europe most of the power is in the central government in London, causing some of the smaller power on the rest of the continent in peril. Including Scotland, Ireland, and Wales. In order to help these countries it is important to pass some power down to them. There are a lot more political structures in London which helps add more power there. More political buildings, more political power.

Neocolonialism- https://asiatimes.com/2020/01/neocolonialism-and-geopolitical-rivalry-in-sri-lanka/
Summary:
In this article it talks about Sri Lanka, a place that was once sought after and was colonised by the British. This land gained independence, it felt as though it was independent but really it was under neocolonialism. A place that seems to be independent but its economy and political system is controlled from outside. Since the British are so powerful, even giving up one of it’s previous territories it still has some power on it, which challenges its sovereignty.

Inequality of gerrymandering- https://www.penncapital-star.com/government-politics/naacp-suing-state-for-prison-gerrymandering/
Summary:
In this article it talks about how the NAACP is suing for prison gerrymandering. In this case, the census is counting those who are in prison in the county where the prison is, not from where their home county is. Making it seem like there are more people living there instead. If they were to put down where they originated from, most of them were from Philadelphia, they would gain one more house in the senate and funding. Since they aren’t, those people won’t be getting the help they need.

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Chelsee Robles

3/12/2020 11:13:09 am

Wow, I am surprised about your second article and how Sri Lanka was under neocolonialism but thought they were independent.

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Spencer Reese

3/9/2020 08:21:59 pm

Self-determination
Spatial Organization

Poland is one of the best examples of the push for self-determination. Having been under the thumb of foreign powers since it’s partitioning in 1795, Poland finally got it's chance for freedom as WW1 came to a close, but this wouldn't last for long as WW2 would soon start. At wars end the Polish were given their own country, and Germany was forced to cede his easternmost territories to the Polish state. The history of Poland has given rise to a strong culture of nationalism and the belief in the strength of their state.

https://culture.pl/en/article/a-musical-journey-through-polish-history

Neocolonialism
Spatial Processes and societal change

China has taken advantage of the economic instability of post-colonial Africa, flooding it with investors, builders, and traders. All under the auspices of helping the African people while really they suck the continent dry of its resources. Some in Africa, namely the myriad dictators who benefit from the exchange, see the coming of the Dragon as a sign of new prosperity, but this apparent “win-win” situation really only benefits the Chinese in the long run. Sure they might be building infrastructure and dams to help with the extraction of resources, but what happens when the resources run out? Without any economic reason to stay the Chinese will leave as soon as they came, taking with them their financial backing and investments, and when those are gone the newly built infrastructure will be a burden on the poor African states.
https://www.pambazuka.org/global-south/chinese-neocolonialism-africa
Devolution
Impacts and interactions

Local leaders are far more suited to the needs of their communities than a far off, federal power. England is a primary example of how devolution can make good change in a region. The north of England is criminally underdeveloped when compared to the south, and local northern leaders can make better decisions for their communities than policy makers in London. Although devolution can make some good change in regards to certain communities, it also can hamstring large development projects as local leaders lack the resources of a more centralized government, but these problems can be surmountable with greater involvement between regions.
https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/feb/26/level-up-england-north-government-devolution-local

Reply

Kendal Win

3/13/2020 07:59:47 pm

I agree with your article on devolution. Governments in charge of more areas are less in tune with the needs of specific areas. Giving more power to localized governments is a good solution to this. Of course, devolution isn't perfect, but it is helpful in England's situation.

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Aydin Chewning

3/13/2020 10:39:50 pm

I agree with your article on devolution because local leaders are truly more aware of their community’s needs than federal leadership.

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Caitlin Crumpler

3/14/2020 02:13:01 pm

i agree with your article on devolution because i agree that they can make good change but only within certain areas of a community

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Chelsee Robles

3/12/2020 11:11:13 am

Article on devolution
Devolution is the transfer of power from a central government to subnational authorities. Devolution became a major political issue for the United Kingdom in the early 1970’s. Scotland and Wales began demanding their freedom which caused a trend in the Scottish National Party. During the 1980’s and 1990’s the support for devolution began to increase because voters in Scotland and Wales elected Labour candidates to the House of Commons by an overwhelming majority. Devolution is often seen as a way to dampen regional, racial, ethnic, and religious cleavages, mainly in multicultural societies.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/devolution-government-and-politics

Article of inequality of gerrymandering.
Gerrymandering is the unlawful redrawing of districts to give one side an unfair advantage. Today states are still fighting with the effects of gerrymandering. Texas went to the Supreme Court because they believed that the Republicans drew the district lines to favor their side. The high court thought that a partical reason for this problem was racial discrimination. The lower ruling court is demanding that they redraw the district or face the Supreme Court prospects.
https://www.politico.com/story/2018/01/12/supreme-court-texas-racial-gerrymandering-338733

Article on neocolonialism.
Neocolonialism is the control of a less developed country by a developed country through indirect means. The term was first used during WW1 and was used for colonizing the colonies, but now has a negative meaning. Neocolonialism is also used by former colonial powers and developed countries when trying to settle conflict. This was mainly seen in the time of the Cold War when the U.S offered money to any government willing to protect the U.S. from communism.
https://www.britannica.com/topic/neocolonialism

Reply

Kendal Win

3/13/2020 07:20:27 pm

I agree with your article on neocolonialism. Powerful countries paying weaker ones only lead to the weaker ones being in debt to the powerful. This leads to the powerful being able to manipulate the weak however they want. Even though African countries are considered free, neocolonialism makes it so that they are decidedly not.

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Sierra Spillman

3/17/2020 08:54:05 pm

I agree with your article on gerrymandering because of how it does tend to favor one side more than the other to benefit a particular party.

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