Resources and Development Class 10 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 1 [Free PDF Download] (2022)

Everything that our environment provides us, that is economically feasible, culturally acceptable, and technologically accessible are called ‘Resources.’

It forms an interactive relationship between nature, technology, and institutions which aid the acceleration of economic development.

Human beings are a part of resources as they themselves utilize these resources and use them. They are a part of human resources.

The resources can be classified on the following basis:

(a) On the basis of origin – biotic and abiotic

(b) On the basis of exhaustibility – renewable and non-renewable

(c) On the basis of ownership – individual, community, national and international

(d) On the basis of the status of development – potential, developed stock and reserves.

Types of Resources

  1. On the Basis of Origin

  1. Biotic- Obtained from the biospheres such as flora, fauna, fisheries etc.

  2. Abiotic - Obtained from non-living resources such as rocks and metals.

  1. On the Basis of Exhaustibility

  1. Renewable

  • These resources are the ones that can replenish once they are exhausted.

  • Example: solar energy, wind energy

  1. Non-Renewable

  • Once exhausted these resources cannot replenish themselves again. If we consume them completely without planning we can lose them forever.

  • Example: Fossil fuels and minerals

  1. On the basis of ownership

  1. Individual

  • Owned privately by individuals

  • Example: Plantation, pasture lands

  1. Community

  • All the members of the community can access these resources

  • Example: Grazing grounds, burial grounds

  1. National

  • All the resources belong to the nation and the country has legal autonomy over them.

  • Private property can be acquired by the government for the public good.

  • Example: Roads, railways etc.

  1. International

  • The oceanic resources beyond 200 nautical miles of the Exclusive Economic Zone belong to the open ocean.

  • No individual country is allowed to utilize these without prior permission from international organizations.

  1. On the basis of the status of development

  1. Potential

  • Resources that are found in a region, but have not been utilized to their full potential are termed as potential resources.

    • Example: Rajasthan and Gujarat have enormous potential for the development of wind and solar energy, but so far these resources have not been utilized properly.

  1. Developed

  • Resources whose quality and quantity have been determined for utilization are termed as developed resources.

  • The extent to which these resources are utilized depends on technology and the level of their feasibility.

  • Hydrogen can be used as a rich source of energy. But we do not have advanced technology to use it.

  1. Stock

  • Resources that are available in the nature to be used but human beings don’t have the right equipment and technology to utilize these resources.

  • Example: Water can be broken down to extract hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is a great source of energy but we don’t know how to carry out this process on a large scale.

  1. Reserves

  • Human civilization has proper technology to utilize these resources but a further development of technology is required to exploit these resources to their fullest potential.

  • Example: Hydropower is being generated from water and hence only put out for limited use.

Development of Resources

Human beings have excessively exploited resources which have led to the following problems:

  • Depletion of resources for satisfying the greedy of a few individuals.

  • Accumulation of resources in few hands which has created two class of people, i.e. haves and have nots or rich and poor.

  • Indiscriminate exploitation of resources that led to the global ecological crises such as, global warming, ozone layer depletion, environmental pollution and land degradation

Sustainable Development

  • Development that takes place without over-exploiting the nature is termed as sustainable development.

  • It focuses on the idea that ‘the development in the present should not compromise with the needs of the future generations.’

  • Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, held in June 1992 was a global submit where more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit.

  • The Summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socio-economic development at the global level.

  • A declaration was signed by the global leaders on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity.

  • The Rio Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted the Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century.

    • It aimed at achieving global sustainable development.

  • It is an agenda that aims at combating environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities.

  • One major objective of the Agenda 21 includes every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

Resource Planning in India

  • Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources as there are certain areas that have sufficient resources while others don't have enough.

  • For example, the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh that are rich in minerals and coal deposits. Arunachal Pradesh has an abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.

  • The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but there is lack in water resources.

  • The cold desert of Ladakh is isolated from the rest of the country. As it has an extraordinarily rich cultural heritage but it is deficient in water, infrastructure, and some vital minerals.

Resource Planning is a Complex Process That Involves:

(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.

(ii) Evolve a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.

(iii) Matching the resource development plans along with overall national development plans.

Land Resources

They form a major share of resources that mankind has.

Land Utilization

Land resources are used for the following purposes:

1. Forests

2. Land not available for cultivation

(a) Barren and waste land

(b) Land put to non-agricultural uses, e.g. buildings, roads, factories, etc.

3. Other uncultivated land (excluding fallow land)

(a) Permanent pastures and grazing land,

(b) Land under miscellaneous tree crops groves (that are not included in the net sown area),

(c) Culturable waste land ( That are left uncultivated for more than 5 agricultural years).

4. Fallow lands

(a) Current fallow-(they are left without cultivation for one or less than one agricultural year),

(b) Other than current fallow-(they are left uncultivated for the past 1 to 5 agricultural years).

5. Net sown area: Area that are sowed more than once in an agricultural year plus net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

Land Use Pattern in India

  • The use of land is determined by using both physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions

  • The land under permanent pasture has also decreased.

  • The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 per cent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands.

  • Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33 per cent of geographical area, which was stated in the National Forest Policy (1952).

  • A part of the land is termed as waste land and land put to other non-agricultural uses.

  • Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas. Land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc.

Land Degradation and Conservation Patterns

  • Human activities like deforestation, overgrazing, mining and quarrying, excessively for a very long period of time over an area can lead to land degradation.

  • Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is complete and that leaves deep scars and traces of over-burdening.

  • In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Odisha deforestation happens due to mining have caused severe land degradation.

  • In other states like Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra overgrazing is a major contributor to land degradation.

  • In the states of Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for land degradation which occurs due to water logging that lead to an increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.

  • The mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate huge quantity of dust in the atmosphere. It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil after it settles down on the land.

Conservation

  • Afforestation or planting of more trees and proper management of grazing can help to control land degradation.

  • Planting of shelter belts of plants, stabilisation of sand dunes by growing thorny bushes are some of the methods to check land degradation in arid areas.

  • Proper management of waste lands, control of mining activities, proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment can reduce land and water degradation in industrial and suburban areas.

Types of Soil

  1. Alluvial Soils

  • Himalayan river system- the Indus, Brahmaputra and Ganga carry sediments with them and form the regions of alluvial deposits. The entire northern plains are made of alluvial soil.

  • These soils also extend in some part of Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor.

  • Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers.

  • This type of soil has various proportions of sand, silt and clay.

  • According to their age alluvial soils can be classified as old alluvial (Bangar) and new alluvial (Khadar).

  • The bangar soil has higher concentration of kanker nodules and has more fine particles and is more fertile than the bangar.

  • Alluvial soil is highly fertile and has adequate proportions of potash, phosphoric acid and lime which are ideal for the growth of sugarcane, paddy, wheat and other cereal and pulse crops.

  1. Black Soil

  • It is black in colour and is also known as regur soil.

  • Black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil and is made up of lava flows.

  • This type of soil is found in the Deccan trap (Basalt) region and it is spread over the northwest Deccan plateau.

  • They mostly cover the plateaus of Maharashtra, Saurashtra, Malwa, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and extend in the south east direction along the Godavari and the Krishna valleys.

  • They are made up of clayey material. They retain moisture and also rich in soil nutrients, such as calcium carbonate, magnesium, potash and lime

  • They develop deep cracks during hot weather, which promotes aeration of the soil but do get sticky when wet and difficult to work on.

  1. Red and Yellow Soils

  • Red soil develops on crystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of the Deccan plateau.

  • Yellow and red soils are also found in some parts of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the Western Ghats.

  1. Laterite Soil

  • The laterite soil develops under the tropical and subtropical climates with an alternate wet and dry season.

  • Lateritic soils are acidic (pH<6.0), and deficient in plant nutrients.

  • They occur in southern states, Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, Odisha, some parts of West Bengal and North-east regions

  1. Arid Soils

  • Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.

  • Are sandy in texture and saline in nature.

  • The soil lacks humus and moisture.

  • The lower horizons of the soil are occupied by Kankar because of the increasing calcium content downwards and it restricts infiltration.

  1. Forest Soils

  • The soils texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed.

  • They are loamy and silty in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.

Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

  • The denudation of the soil cover and subsequent washing down is described as soil erosion.

  • Soil formation and soil erosion go hand in hand but if it goes beyond control then can lead to disastrous outcomes.

  • Activities like deforestation, overgrazing, construction and mining etc., and natural forces like wind, glaciers and water lead to soil erosion cause a lot of soil erosion.

  • The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies and makes land unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land.

  • In the Chambal basin, such lands are called ravines.

  • Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down the slope. In such cases, the top soil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion.

  • Ploughing along the contour lines can decelerate the flow of water down the slopes. This is known as contour ploughing.

  • Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces. Terrace cultivation restricts erosion. In this steps are cut down to create terraces which help to retain water.

  • Large fields can be divided into strips. Strips of grass are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind. This method is known as strip cropping.

  • Planting lines of trees to create shelter also works in a similar way. Rows of such trees are called shelter belts. These shelter belts have contributed significantly to the stabilisation of sand dunes and in stabilising the desert in western India.

Important Questions and Answer:

1. Explain briefly about the ‘Agenda 21’?

Ans: Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, held in June 1992 was a global submit where more than 100 heads of states met in Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, for the first International Earth Summit. The Summit was convened for addressing urgent problems of environmental protection and socioeconomic development at the global level. A declaration was signed by the global leaders on Global Climatic Change and Biological Diversity. The Rio Convention endorsed the global Forest Principles and adopted Agenda 21 for achieving Sustainable Development in the 21st century. It is aimed at achieving global sustainable development.

It is an agenda that aims at combating environmental damage, poverty, disease through global co-operation on common interests, mutual needs and shared responsibilities. One major objective of the Agenda 21 is that every local government should draw its own local Agenda 21.

2. What are the different types of soil erosion?

Ans: The following are different types of soil erosion:

  1. Gully Erosion: The running water cuts through the clayey soils and makes deep channels as gullies and makes land unfit for cultivation and is known as bad land.

  2. Sheet Erosion: Sometimes water flows as a sheet over large areas down a slope. In such cases, the top soil is washed away. This is known as sheet erosion.

  3. Wind Erosion: When the top fertile layer of soil gets eroded by the wind then it is called as wind erosion. Planting trees can help to reduce soil erosion by wind.

3. Mention the factors that determine land use in India.

Ans: The use of land is determined both by physical factors such as topography, climate, soil types as well as human factors such as population density, technological capability and culture and traditions. The land under permanent pasture has also decreased.

The pattern of net sown area varies greatly from one state to another. It is over 80 per cent of the total area in Punjab and Haryana and less than 10 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Manipur and Andaman Nicobar Islands.

Forest area in the country is far lower than the desired 33 per cent of geographical area, which was stated in the National Forest Policy (1952). A part of the land is termed as waste land and land put to other non-agricultural uses.

Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas and land put to other non-agricultural uses includes settlements, roads, railways, industry etc.

4. “Resource planning is essential for sustainable development.” Elaborate

Ans: Planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use of resources as there are certain areas that have sufficient resources while others don't have enough.

For example, the states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits. Arunachal Pradesh has an abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development. The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources. The cold desert of Ladakh is isolated from the rest of the country. It has an extraordinarily rich cultural heritage but it is deficient in water, infrastructure, and some vital minerals.

Resource planning is a complex process that involves:

(i) Identification and inventory of resources across the regions of the country. This involves surveying, mapping and qualitative and quantitative estimation and measurement of the resources.

(ii) Evolving a planning structure endowed with appropriate technology, skill and institutional set up for implementing resource development plans.

(iii) Matching the resource development plans with overall national development plans.

CBSE Notes Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Resources and Development

Everything in our environment that we can use to satisfy our needs and is technologically accessible, economically affordable and acceptable culturally is termed as ‘Resource’. Humans are dominant components of resources. They convert materials available in the environment into resources and use them.

Classification of Resources

Classification of Resources is done in the following ways:

  1. On the basis of Origin-Biotic and Abiotic.

  2. On the basis of Exhaustibility-Renewable and Non-Renewable.

  3. On the basis of Ownership-Individual, community, national and international.

  4. On the basis of the status of development-potential, developed stock and reserves.

Types of Resources

  1. On the Basis of Origin – Biotic and Abiotic

  • Biotic Resources

These are obtained from living things in the environment. They are obtained from plants, animals, birds etc.

  • Abiotic Resources

These are obtained from non-living things in the environment. They are obtained from rocks, mountains, soil etc.

  1. On the Basis of Exhaustibility – Renewable and Non-Renewable

  • Renewable or Replenishable Resources

  • Non-Renewable Resources

  1. On the Basis of Ownership – Individual, Community, National and International

  • Individual Resources

These resources are owned by individuals. Examples of private plots, farms, houses etc.

  • Community Owned Resources

These resources are over by a community and accessible to all the members of the community. Example burial grounds, playground, wells etc.

  • National Resources

These resources are owned by a country or nation. Example mineral resources water resources forest.

  • International Resources

These resources are under the rules and regulations of international institutions. Example the water of the ocean beyond 200 nautical miles.

  1. On the Basis of the Status of Development – Potential, Developed Stock and Reserves

  • Potential Resources

These resources are the resources which have been found in a region but yet to be utilised.

  • Developed Resources

These resources are the resources which have been researched upon and their quality and quantity have been already decided by making utilisation of them.

  • Stock

These are the sources which have the potential to be utilised by human beings but we do not have adequate technology to utilise them.

  • Reserves

Reserve just like ‘Stock’ but these are resources which can be put to use with technology but they have not been used.

Development of Resources

Human utilised resources indiscriminately which has led to many problems. The resources have got concentrated in few hands and this has caused rapid depletion of certain resources.

The rapid depletion of resources has also resulted in various environmental issues like global warming ozone layer depletion and environmental pollution.

At this point, resource planning has become an essential thing.

Note: Sustainable economic development is a development which takes place without damaging the environment of the present generation does not compromise with the needs of the future generation.

Resource Planning

Resource planning is very essential to ensure that the proper distribution of resources takes place in a region. Resource distribution should be equal so that everyone has access to it.

Resource Planning in India

For a country like India, resource planning is essential because we have a diverse population and a very large one at that which needs a management system.

India has a varied distribution of resources all over the country. This requires a central management system to see that every part of the country receives the resources and utilizes it according to needs. Therefore, the country considered most of the resources found in nature as national resources. All the resources are taken inventory of, and the needs of various regions are estimated and distributed accordingly.

Conservation of Resources

The irrational consumption and overutilization of resources have created an imbalance in the system. This has led to many environmental as well as economic and social issues. To combat these issues, the conservation of resources is essential for survival.

Land Resources

Land as a resource is a very important one as it supports life on earth. Apart from supporting life land also, various uses are carefully planned.

The various relief features of the land are categorised into three mountains which constitutes 30% of the land, plateaus which constitute 27% of the land and plains which constitutes 43% of the land.

Land Utilisation

The various purpose of land utilisation is as follows:

  • Forests.

  • Land not available for cultivation.

  1. Barren and wasteland.

  2. Land put to non-agricultural uses.

  • Fallow lands.

  • Other uncultivated lands (excluding fallow land).

  • Net sown area.

Land Use Pattern in India

The land use pattern is determined by physical factors and human factors. Physical factors are topography climate and soil types while human factors are population density, technological capability, culture, tradition etc.

Land Degradation and Conservation Measures

Due to human activities, as well as some natural phenomena, the land in recent times has started degrading. Some activities such as deforestation mining, quarrying, overgrazing have significantly increased the rate of Land Degradation. Industrial waste has also contributed to degrading the quality of land especially in areas where industrial belts are found. Land Degradation has also affected the quality of water in our natural resources.

To conserve our Land and ensure the land degradation rate declines, we can take certain measures such as control mining activities proper disposal of Industrial waste planting shelterbelts etc.

Soil as a Resource

Soil is one of the important natural resources which is renewable. It takes millions of years to form every centimetre of soil. Soil formation depends upon various factors like temperature, the action of running water, wind, glaciers, the activity of decomposers, parent rock, chemical and organic changes etc.

Classification of Soils

India has various types of soil due to various natural factors that have contributed to creating soil which differs in terms of thickness, colour, texture, chemical and physical properties.

Alluvial Soils

  • The Northern Plains are made of Alluvial soil. Alluvial soil is formed due to deposits from the Himalayan rivers Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra.

  • It consists mainly of sand, silt and clay. Based on age Alluvial soils are classified into old Alluvial known as ‘Bhangar’ and new alluvial known as ‘khadar’.

Black Soil

  • The black soil is famous for growing cotton crops. It is mainly found in the Deccan trap and made of Lava.

  • It has more amount of clay and is known for its moisture holding capacity.

Red and Yellow Soils

  • This type of soil is found mainly in areas with low rainfall the soil has iron and is formed of igneous which gives it its reddish colour.

  • The soil changes colour from red to yellow when it is hydrated.

Laterite Soil

  • Laterite soil forms in subtropical and tropical climates where intense leaching happens due to heavy rainfall this soil is acidic and is found mostly in the southern States Maharashtra.

  • It is very useful for growing tea and coffee.

Arid Soils

  • Soil is generally sandy and saline in nature; it lacks humus and moisture.

  • The soil is red to brown in colour and has got high calcium content while going deeper.

Forest Soils

  • This is found in forest areas especially in the hills and mountains the soil is loamy and silty while of course in the upper slopes.

  • It is acidic in nature with low humus content.

Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

Soil erosion occurs due to human as well as Natural activities. It needs to be controlled as high soil erosion will lead to many problems. Soil erosion can be controlled by using soil conservation methods.

Different Ways for Soil Conservation

Various ways to conserve soil such as given below:

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