NCERT Book Class 12 Geography PDF (2022)

Table of Contents
NCERT 12 Geography Book Part 2 – People and Economy Why Is Class 12 Geography NCERT Book Important For Exams? Why it is Essential to refer to Class 12 Geography NCERT Books Basis for fundamental knowledge – To pursue an exciting and preferred career path, students need to strengthen their basic concepts. NCERT books provide students with the same as it explains the fundamental concepts effortlessly and makes them ready to venture the complex topics.Simple language – The simple language used makes the job easier as students get to understand various geographical topics by merely reading the chapters.Prepared by qualified teachers – The NCERT Geography Class 12 Book is developed by renowned authors and qualified teachers who have many years of experience in this field. They prepare thoroughly researched content most efficiently. They include essential and complex topics, and start by explaining the most fundamental ones.Diverse exercise questions – Every chapter of the Class 12 Geography NCERT books end with a series of exercise questions, which covers the various topics, illustrated in the chapter. Solving and practising them helps students in their board exams and other competitive exams.Maintained quality standard – Even though it is written in simple and easy to understand language, they keep the needed quality standard as described by CBSE. The Class 12 Geography NCERT books are written with a neutral perspective and a natural flow that helps students strengthen their communication skills as well. Conclusion For a subject like Geography, it is very important for the students to mark all the important sections in the textbook and revise them time and again, to retain all the information. One has to remember that scoring marks in the subject Geography is not hard, but to do so, one also needs to be prepared accordingly, and this is achieved by reading the NCERT textbooks and practicing the topics from Vedantu.

Chapter 1 – Human Geography Nature and Scope


The first chapter talks about the importance of studying Geography using two approaches – Regional and Systematic. It educates students about life’s existence on earth and of every other natural phenomenon that occurred over space over a period.

The concept of Human Geography talks about the relationship of human beings with their surroundings. The Class 12 Geography NCERT book includes this chapter to provide students with the fundamental knowledge about nature and its connection with living beings.

Further, students are tested for their understanding with a series of questions asked at the end of the exercise. Practising these questions will not only clear your concept but will help you in the preparation of upcoming exams.

Chapter 2 – The World Population Distribution, Density and Growth

The second chapter illustrates the concept of Population distribution. It describes how the entire population of the human race resides in a demographic. It is divided into several categories, depending upon the way a portion of earth’s surface is populated. The sparsely populated places are considered to be challenging to live, and densely populated areas are considered as comforting habitats.

Including these concepts of population and its growth and density in an area, this book imparts knowledge about the entire human population. In this chapter of 12th Geography NCERT book, various kinds of exercise questions are included like multiple-choice questions, differentiating between two terms, short answers, etc.

Chapter 3 – Population Composition

The third chapter of population composition is considered as an integral topic not only from the exam point of view but also for analysing the change in society and the way they interact. It discusses how different people form a group and how they live and interact in the community, which is determined by several elements such as age, sex, ethnicity, etc.

The Class 12th Geography NCERT book lucidly explains the topic of population composition with the help of a population pyramid. The pyramid is used to compare the population data accumulated over time. Read this chapter thoroughly to learn these topics comprehensively.

Chapter 4 – Human Development

Evidence of human development can be acquired when looking into history. However, this chapter from the Geography Book Class 12 explains the various building blocks of human development, approaches for growth, and its measure. The students get to learn the different measuring terms and compare the international developments.

The chapter explains the idea of human development as progress in the standard of living so that people can be free and live their life on their terms. Read on the chapter to gain a detailed picture of the human development concept.

Chapter 5 – Primary Activities

Popularly known as primitive activities, these refer to the lifestyle of humans in the earliest times. This chapter illustrates all the primary activities on which humans were dependent so that they could provide for their basic needs and live a comfortable life. If you download the Class 12 Geography Book PDF and read, you will get familiar with the various primitive activities.

Students will learn to define farming and agriculture, hunting, etc. once they read the chapter. The exercise questions at the end of the chapter challenge students and test their understanding further.

Chapter 6 – Secondary Activities

This chapter of secondary activities is a lesson about the primitive products or raw materials and process them to manufacture finished goods, which can be used for various purposes such as lifestyle improvement, etc. The secondary activity mentioned here in Geography Class 12 NCERT PDF refers to the industries, which manufacture products from one or a combination of raw materials.

The various kinds of industries, their location, classification, process, etc. are defined briefly in this chapter so that students are aware of the industrialisation concept in their surroundings. Read the chapter to learn intricately.

Chapter 7 – Tertiary and Quaternary Activities

The seventh chapter covers the concepts of tertiary and quaternary activities intricately. Tertiary activities defined here can be segregated into four different kinds, such as – service, transport, trade, and communication. Likewise, knowledge-oriented activities such as research and development, skills development, technical proficiency, etc. are kept under quaternary events.

You can either read online or download Class 12 Geography NCERT PDF and ensure to learn these concepts at your pace. Further, answer and practise the exercise questions from the beginning to have the upper hand in the upcoming exam.

Chapter 8 – Transport and Communication

This chapter includes two integral topics, which caused a revolutionary change in human lives – Transport and communication. The eighth chapter in the NCERT Geography Class 12 PDF explains in detail the evolution of transport from pull carts to roadways, railways, highways, water transport, and air transport.

The evolution of long-distance communication was a revolutionary change for humankind as it made it possible to exchange information from one place to another. This chapter illustrates the various forms of communication, such as telegraph, telephone, World Wide Web, etc. Read this chapter to acquire in-depth knowledge of the chapter.

Chapter 9 – International Trade

The wave of industrial revolution gave rise to the international trade about which you will read in this chapter. International trade means trade between the two countries for various products. A non-industrial country can import finished goods from an industrial country, which is capable of manufacturing it.

The various terms of trade and mode of transport are specified in this chapter of 12th NCERT Geography Book. It also mentions about WTO (World Trade Organisation), and how it governs the economic globalisation and global trading system. Read the chapter to learn intricately about international trade.

Chapter 10 – Human Settlements

Chapter 10 from Geography 12th Class NCERT Book is about human settlements. It demonstrates the habitat of humans in a particular region for a more extended period. This chapter discusses various human settlements, which can be short-lived or long-lived and may be restructured or re-designed.

With the concepts included, this chapter also helps students differentiate a rural settlement from that of an urban one. Further, one can learn the various kinds of settlement, their functions, types, etc. as they read the chapter meticulously.

NCERT 12 Geography Book Part 2 – People and Economy

Chapter 1 – Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences

This chapter illuminates the concept of migration to students. As provided in the book, migration is a situation wherein a human or a family changes their habitat. This usually occurs because of a lack of opportunities in a single place. For instance, individuals look for a habitat, which is comparatively safer and has more possibilities than the one they are living in.

The chapter further discusses the types, cause, and factors of migration in detail. Students can download the 12th NCERT Geography Book PDF and learn comfortably at their pace and ace in their academic pursuits.

Chapter 2 – Land Resources and Agriculture

It is one of the most critical chapters of Geography, which students must learn. The chapter demonstrates the land resources available to humankind and its ratio for various purposes right from farming and agriculture to wastelands. The various factors concerning land use in India are described briefly in this chapter.

Alongside this, the chapter from Geography Book Class 12 NCERT also includes various concepts of agricultural land, types of food grains, strategy development, agricultural development in India, and problems faced by farmers. Students can read the entire chapter and get a clear picture of land resources available in India.

Chapter 3 – Water Resources

Water is a naturally renewable resource and is imperative for every living being’s existence. One cannot think of life without the presence of water, and because of that, it is included as one of the essential chapters in Class 12 Geography Book NCERT. It consists of topics like various water resources, availability of fresh water, water scarcity, water resource management and river projects, etc.

It discusses and allows a student to analyse the various pros and cons involved in implementing these water management techniques. You will be able to learn these concepts in details as you read the chapter thoroughly. Further, practise the exercise questions given at the end of the chapter to perform better in exams.

Chapter 4 – Mineral and Energy Resources

Minerals are elements found in earth resulting from various natural processes over a long period or short period. This chapter elaborates these minerals, the different kinds available, their characteristics, and distribution graph in India. The multiple charts and maps shown in New NCERT Geography Class 12 book help students understand the regions where a particular kind of mineral is found in abundance.

Apart from minerals, the chapter also elaborates the energy resources available wind energy, solar energy, bioenergy, geothermal energy, and wave energy, etc. By reading the chapter thoroughly, students will be able to realise not to waste exhaustible resources and instead consume renewable resources.

Chapter 5 – Manufacturing Industries

This chapter illustrates everything about manufacturing industries and is one of the critical most critical chapters from the exam point of view. It describes the various types of manufacturing industries depending upon several factors such as – ownership, raw materials used, finished goods, location, etc. It also includes the major industries available in India and elements, which affect its location.

Read the 12th Class Geography NCERT Book to learn these topics along with petrochemical industries in India and various aspects about it. Students should attempt and practise the exercise questions provided at the end of this chapter from beginning itself to ensure their performance improves in the final exam.

Chapter 6 – Planning and Sustainable Development in Indian Context

This chapter exclusively focuses on sustainable development and planning in India. The two approaches to planning mentioned here are based on the sector-wise and region-wise growth. Various target area planning and programmes are mentioned in the chapter to educate students about the intricacies of planning. Alongside planning, the need for sustainable development for the better of humankind and environment is described so that students are well aware of various positive and negative impacts on the environment.

This chapter from 12th Class NCERT Geography Book helps students to learn all these and provides them with challenging exercise questions so that they are well prepared for the upcoming exams.

Chapter 7 – Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems

The last chapter includes several topics, which are essential for students to study and to learn from the exam perspective and in general as well. This chapter illustrates various forms of pollution found in the environment such as water pollution, air pollution, noise pollution, environmental pollution, etc. their causes, effects, prevention, etc.

Apart from pollution, it also includes some integral topics such as migration trends, classification of wastelands, land degradation, etc. Students can either study offline or download NCERT Book Class 12 Geography PDF and start exploring these critical concepts to improve their knowledge and start preparing for the exam.

Why Is Class 12 Geography NCERT Book Important For Exams?

CBSE and several other state boards prefer NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) books for the course of study in schools. Therefore, students must read from Class 12 Geography NCERT books so that they can cover the entire syllabus and practise the exercise questions. These questions are critical and diverse and need to be practised well so that students can perform well in exams.

Why it is Essential to refer to Class 12 Geography NCERT Books

  1. Basis for fundamental knowledge – To pursue an exciting and preferred career path, students need to strengthen their basic concepts. NCERT books provide students with the same as it explains the fundamental concepts effortlessly and makes them ready to venture the complex topics.


  1. Simple language – The simple language used makes the job easier as students get to understand various geographical topics by merely reading the chapters.


  1. Prepared by qualified teachers – The NCERT Geography Class 12 Book is developed by renowned authors and qualified teachers who have many years of experience in this field. They prepare thoroughly researched content most efficiently. They include essential and complex topics, and start by explaining the most fundamental ones.


  1. Diverse exercise questions – Every chapter of the Class 12 Geography NCERT books end with a series of exercise questions, which covers the various topics, illustrated in the chapter. Solving and practising them helps students in their board exams and other competitive exams.


  1. Maintained quality standard Even though it is written in simple and easy to understand language, they keep the needed quality standard as described by CBSE. The Class 12 Geography NCERT books are written with a neutral perspective and a natural flow that helps students strengthen their communication skills as well.

Conclusion

For a subject like Geography, it is very important for the students to mark all the important sections in the textbook and revise them time and again, to retain all the information. One has to remember that scoring marks in the subject Geography is not hard, but to do so, one also needs to be prepared accordingly, and this is achieved by reading the NCERT textbooks and practicing the topics from Vedantu.

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