Geography Optional - Synopsis IAS (2022)

The Geography Optional for UPSC IAS and NET JRF is designed by Krishna Sir, who is the faculty and content developer for this course. Under his guidance, many students have qualified this exam. The course includes Geography UPSC Previous Year Papers 40 Years Solved with Model Answers. The course includes Optional Book Summaries.

S1 Geography Online Classroom
(without Test Series Evaluation)

  • E Books + Lectures + Test Series
  • Test Series (No Evaluation): 8 Half Length + 4 Full Length Tests
  • Content: Summary of Standard Books, PYQs included, Optional Current Affairs
  • Online Classes (Not Offline)
  • Free Foundation Lectures at YouTube by Krishna Sir
  • Advanced Lectures at Dashboard by Krishna Sir
  • Course Duration : 120 Hours (15-30 min lecture for one topic)
  • Hardcopy
  • Online dashboard (24*7 Access)
  • Validity: 1 Batch (2 months after Mains)

Enroll for 2023 @ Rs. 8992

Enroll for 2024 @ Rs. 9992

Enroll for 2025 @ Rs. 10992

S2 Geography Online Classroom
(with Test Series Evaluation)

  • E Books + Lectures + Test Series
  • Test Series (With Evaluation): 8 Half Length + 4 Full Length Tests
  • Content: Summary of Standard Books, PYQs included, Optional Current Affairs
  • Online Classes (Not Offline)
  • Free Foundation Lectures at YouTube by Krishna Sir
  • Advanced Lectures at Dashboard by Krishna Sir
  • Course Duration : 120 Hours (15-30 min lecture for one topic)
  • Hardcopy
  • Online dashboard (24*7 Access)
  • Validity: 1 Batch (2 months after Mains)
(Video) How to Prepare Geography Optional: Introduction to Syllabus | UPSC IAS

Enroll for 2023 @ Rs. 11992

Enroll for 2024 @ Rs. 12992

Enroll for 2025 @ Rs. 13992

S3 Geography Online Mentorship Batch

  • Everything of S3 Batch
  • 1 Year of Mentorship
  • 11 Extra Unit wise Tests (With Evaluation)
  • Online Classes and Mentorship
  • Lectures on Answer Writing by Krishna Sir
  • One to one Weekly Mentorship Sessions on Calls by a Group of Mentors with Subject Matter Expertise
  • Priority Support
  • Validity: 1 Batch (2 months after Mains)

Enroll for 2023 @ Rs. 16992

Enroll for 2024 @ Rs. 17992

Enroll for 2025 @ Rs. 18992

Enroll Now for Geography Optional

Main Faculty: Krishna Sir

(Video) How to prepare Geography Optional for 300+ | Test Series L1

Geography Optional: From Basic to Advanced

UPSC Previous Year Papers Model Answers Included

No Need to Read Any Book

Course Duration: 100 Hours. Number ofPages: Approx. 1/3rd of the market.

IAS and NET JRF

Course completion date: 45 days before Mains

Synopsis IAS Optional courses cover the subjects for UPSC in most comprehensive and lucid manner, which is helpful for the prestigious UPSC IAS and IFS Examinations.

Free Study Material

Geography Optional
Previous Year Question (1979-2021)

by Krishna Sir
Redefined Syllabus and PYQs

Geomorphology

by Savindra Singh
Model Answers

Download

Geomorphology Model Answers

Handwritten notes by Krishna Sir
Learn how to write in exam hall

Download

Climatology

by Savindra Singh & Rupa Made Simple

Download

Oceanography

by Savindra Singh & Rupa Made Simple

(Video) UPSC Geography Optional 2020 Paper 1 Analysis | How to prepare Geography Optional: How to Score 150+

Download

Biogeography & Environmental Geography

by Savindra Singh & Rupa Made Simple

Download

(Video) UPSC Geography Optional 2021 Paper 2 Analysis | How to prepare Geography Optional: How to Score 150+

Course Content

PAPER 1: PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY

  1. Geomorphology:Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development ; Applied Geomorphology : Geohydrology, economic geology and environment.
  2. Climatology:Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto genesis, Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s, Thornthwaite’s and Trewartha’s classification of world climates; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change and role and response of man in climatic changes, Applied climatology and Urban climate.
  3. Oceanography:Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources: biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs, coral bleaching; sealevel changes; law of the sea and marinepollution.
  4. Biogeography:Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degradation and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry; agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.
  5. Environmental Geography:Principle of ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecologicalchanges and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainabledevelopment; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.
  6. Perspectives in HumanGeography:Areal differentiation; regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locationalanalysis; radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.
  1. Economic Geography:World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutrition problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: locational patterns and problems; patterns of world trade.
  2. Population and SettlementGeography:Growth and distribution of world population; demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital. Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology: Concepts of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural – urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.
  3. Regional Planning:Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; regional development strategies; environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.
  4. Models, Theoriesand Laws in Human Geography:Systems analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Rostov’s model of stages of growth. Heartland and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.

PAPER 2: GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA

  1. Physical Setting:Spacerelationship of India with neighboring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns, Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation; Soil types and their distributions.
  2. Resources:Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources; Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.
  3. Agriculture:Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors: land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and socialforestry; Green revolution and its socioeconomic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; aqua – culture; sericulture, apiculture and poultry; agricultural regionalisation; agro-climatic zones; agro- ecological regions.
  4. Industry:Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilizer, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile,cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policies; Multinationals and liberalization; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including eco -tourism.
  5. Transport, Communication and Trade:Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy; Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.
  6. Cultural Setting:Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial, linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, intra- regional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.
  7. Settlements:Types,patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments; Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities;Conurbations and metropolitan regions; urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; town planning; Problems of urbanization and remedies.
  8. Regional Developmentand Planning:Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj anddecentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought prone, hill, tribal area development;multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.
  9. Political Aspects:Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter state issues; international boundary of India and related issues; Cross border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.
  10. Contemporary Issues:Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues relating toenvironmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion andfood security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economicdevelopment; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

APPROACH

A Scientific and Redefined Way to Learn Optionals: All the UPSC Optional Subjects Online Coaching Courses are divided into two Levels

  • Free course: These are free Lectures available on YouTube or at our online learning portal.
  • Advanced Courses (Registered users): It covers full syllabus.

Features of advanced courses

  • The content development team and faculty members for all the optionals are the subject matter experts, and not the amateur aspirants.
  • Advanced lectures: These include applied part and in depth-learning for all major topics. These are not available at YouTube.
  • Study Material: Lecture content is available for registered students in PDF format.
  • No book needed: For making content, we start with NCERTs, and refer standard text books, reference books, research papers and journals. We update the optional content with current affairs.
  • Personalized student dashboard: Registered Students get a Personalized student dashboard with a login password. You can watch the lectures anywhere, anytime. You can also track studies through realtime course progress.
  • Answer Writing Practice: There are extensive answer writing sessions exactly based on UPSC pattern. Kindly note that evaluation is not part of the Classroom course. Evaluation is available for test series students.
  • Model Answers: You will get model answers to the previous year questions, expected questions etc.
  • Expert Support: You will get Doubt clearance Sessions via mail, chat, or phone, as and when required.
  • Offline centre Support at Delhi.
  • Two-way feedback: We take students’ feedback seriously. We can remove or replace faculties if the feedback is not good.

Our Methodology for content Development

We are a content-based coaching. We spend 6-8 hours for a 20-30 minute lecture to provide you the most comprehensive and Synoptic content for UPSC IAS (Indian Administrative Services) and IFS (Indian Forest Services).

Our Approach- Syllabus and previous year papers are the Key!

(Video) Geography Optional is not Technical | Facts and Myths UPSC IAS

  • It is a well-established fact that at least 80-90% of questions are repeated directly or indirectly in UPSC Optional Papers.
  • Considering this fact, the content is made while considering two parameters: UPSC Syllabus Plus Previous Year Question Papers.
  • Our classroom lectures, content, and test Series are based on UPSC pattern.
  • The Optional content is made from standard textbooks and references, research papers, and Journals. This requires years of learning and understanding of the subjects.
  • Minimum Content: 30% of the market. No garbage material. No other institute is even closer to us in content.

FAQs

Is Geography a good optional for IAS? ›

Geography is one of the most popular optional subjects in the UPSC civil services exam. There have been toppers with this optional in the previous years. The most famous topper is Ira Singhal who topped the civil services exam in 2015.

Who got highest marks in geography optional? ›

Two people in the UPSC 2017 top ten had Geography as their optional and in 2016 UPSC civil services, Geography figured three times in the top 20 rank-list. The highest-ranked with Geography optional was rank 4 holder Saumya Pandey.
...
Geography Optional Toppers.
YearNameRank
2010Anurag Chaudhary34
24 more rows

Is geography optional easy for UPSC? ›

The definite syllabus of Geography makes it easy for the candidates and encourages them to go for self-study for Geography optional. Geography is easy to understand and more scientific subject, that's why it is preferred by many aspirants from science, medical and engineering backgrounds.

Who is best teacher for geography optional? ›

Mr. Akshay Sanjay Gurubhaiye ( B.E.- Mechanical Engineering, 2012) is one of the best Teacher for geography optional IAS subject preparation 2022. The teaching skills along with weekly tests conducted by Mr. Akshay Sanjay Gurubhaiye help the candidates to prepare for IAS optional Geography subjects preparation 2022.

Which optional has highest success rate? ›

UPSC Optional Subjects Success Rate 2016
No.Optional SubjectSuccess Rate
1Agriculture18.6
2Medical science16.3
3Animal husbandry12.3
4Economics11.3
13 more rows
3 Jul 2021

Which is the easiest optional for UPSC? ›

How to select the easiest optional subject for UPSC from the list I have made after shortlisting?
S.NoOptional SubjectSuccess Rate Percentage
1.Medical Science23.4
2.Economics19
3.AnimalHusbandry & VeterinaryScience23.1
4.Law17.1
6 more rows

What was Tina Dabi's optional subject? ›

She had pursued a degree in Political Science. Dabi takes an avid interest in Madhubani paintings and reading fiction. This was Dabi's first attempt at the civil services exam.
...
Related Links:
UPSC BooksCurrent Affairs Quiz
Success Rate of Optional Subjects in UPSC ExamUPSC Mains Syllabus
2 more rows

Which is better optional Geography or Sociology? ›

Both Sociology and Geography are popular optionals in the Civil Services Exam. Geography surpasses Sociology if you look at the absolute numbers of candidates opting for the subjects. In fact, both subjects are considered scoring.

Which is the most taken optional subject in UPSC? ›

Geography. Geography is now the most preferred subject among the optional subjects chosen by the candidates, followed by History, Public Administration and Sociology. Among the candidates who qualify to write UPSC Mains (written exam) every year, around 3000 candidates prefer Geography as the optional subject.

How many months geography Optional takes to complete? ›

Ideally, aspirants need 4-5 months to complete the optional subject solely. Here we are giving the best suitable strategies for Geography optional for the UPSC IAS Mains Exam. Aspirants should have an exhaustive knowledge about the syllabus of Geography optional.

Can I prepare geography optional without coaching? ›

It is not absolutely necessary to take coaching, but in a highly popular subject like geo, it always helps to be a few steps ahead of the crowd which is possible if you get good guidance. Pls do not leave out any topic as a whole. Have a basic idea of everything in the syllabus.

Is geography optional vast? ›

Geography as an optional subject is having a vast UPSC syllabus but with smart work and proper planning one can study it in an organized way and UPSC syllabus can be covered without any hassle.

Who teaches geography optional in Vajiram and Ravi? ›

Shabbir Sir is a well known faculty teaching in reputed coaching Vajiram And Ravi situated in Delhi. Shabbir Sir always teaches according to UPSC Geography optional syllabus. He has teaching experience of more than 15 years. His teaching style suits for the aspirants with different background.

Who is Shabbir Sir for geography optional? ›

By Shabbir Sir – Co-Founder, Edukemy and Ex. Faculty of Vajiram & Ravi. An Intensive online learning programme that ensures holistic coverage and understanding of Geography Optional for UPSC-CSE. It provides in-depth coverage of all the concepts and topics by India's Best Faculty for Geography Optional.

Who is the best Teacher of polity for UPSC? ›

Sidharth Arora is amongst the most popular UPSC-CSE Polity Faculty in India. With his law background and more than 15 years of practicing experience, Dr. Arora has the knowledge of the Indian constitution and Polity like no one else and it clearly shows in the way he teaches these subjects to the IAS aspirants.

Which optional has smallest syllabus? ›

Philosophy has the shortest syllabus out of all of the optional subjects for the UPSC examination and is the reason for it is a popular choice amongst UPSC aspirants.

Will UPSC remove optional? ›

Is Optional Subject removed from UPSC? No, the Optional Subjects are still a part of the UPSC Mains exam.

Which is better optional history or geography? ›

The subjects Geography and History are quite popular with candidates.
...
Comparing History and Geography Optionals for UPSC Mains.
SubjectHistoryGeography
Candidates who takeCandidates with any background can take up history.Candidates with any background can take up Geography.
Success RateGenerally greater than 5%.Generally greater than 5%.
9 more rows

Which optional has most overlap with GS? ›

Public administration

In this subject, a lot of topics find overlap in GS paper II like governance and constitution. Other subjects that find considerable overlap with general studies include sociology, law and philosophy (especially in the ethics paper).

Which is best optional geography or anthropology? ›

Geography was the most preferred subject among the optional subjects chosen by the candidates, followed by Political Science & International Relations and Sociology.

Is political science or optional geography better? ›

There is no better. They both are scoring and extensively helpful for future. If you are good with maps and mapping and locations, then you should go for geography. If laerning about new horizons excite you then ofcourse geography is for you.

Which is better optional history or geography? ›

The subjects Geography and History are quite popular with candidates.
...
Comparing History and Geography Optionals for UPSC Mains.
SubjectHistoryGeography
Candidates who takeCandidates with any background can take up history.Candidates with any background can take up Geography.
Success RateGenerally greater than 5%.Generally greater than 5%.
9 more rows

Which is better optional geography or sociology? ›

Both Sociology and Geography are popular optionals in the Civil Services Exam. Geography surpasses Sociology if you look at the absolute numbers of candidates opting for the subjects. In fact, both subjects are considered scoring.

Which is best optional geography or anthropology? ›

Geography was the most preferred subject among the optional subjects chosen by the candidates, followed by Political Science & International Relations and Sociology.

Is history harder than geography? ›

Also there is a lot of writing and if u don't like English then never pick history. Geography is quite easy and interesting but then again a lot of case studies to remember. The coursework for history is basically source analysis but it is quite difficult compared with geography coursework.

Videos

1. How to Prepare Geomorphology Geography Optional | UPSC IAS Krishna
(Synopsis IAS)
2. How to Prepare Geography Optional Perspectives in Human Geography | UPSC IAS Krishna
(Synopsis IAS)
3. How to Prepare Climatology Geography Optional | UPSC IAS Krishna
(Synopsis IAS)
4. UPSC Geography Optional 2019 Paper 1 Analysis: How to Score 150+ (How to prepare Geography Optional)
(Synopsis IAS)
5. UPSC Geography Optional 2019 Paper 2 Analysis: How to Score 150+ (How to prepare Geography Optional)
(Synopsis IAS)
6. How to prepare climatology Geography Optional | How to Prepare Geography Optional
(Synopsis IAS)

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