Drainage Class 9 Notes CBSE Geography Chapter 3 [Free PDF Download] (2022)

Drainage of a landmass refers to its river system. Small streams which flow from different directions usually come together to form the main river body. This river drains into a larger water body like a lake, sea, or ocean. The area which is drained by a single river system is termed a drainage basin. An elevated physical structure like a mountain or an upland sometimes separates two drainage basins. This physical feature is called the water divide.

Important Drainage Systems of India

  1. The drainage systems in India are dominated by broad relief features.

  2. The Indian rivers are categorized into two major groups:

  1. The Himalayan Rivers:

  • These rivers have water throughout the year and hence, they are perennial. They are snow-fed rivers and also receive water from rainfall.

  • The Ganga and the Brahmaputra are the two major rivers of this type, originating from the north.

  • They form gorges and cause intensive erosional activities in their upper courses; in the middle course, they meander and form oxbow lakes; the lower course is marked by the striking feature of deltas.

  1. The Peninsular Rivers: The peninsular rivers are seasonal and depend on rainfall. They are shallower in comparison to the Himalayan rivers.

  1. It can be rightly said that these two groups of rivers are different in many ways.

The Himalayan River Systems

  1. Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra are the three Himalayan rivers that form three major river systems of India. An account of these three rivers is given below:

  1. Indus River System:

  • The river Indus rises near Mansarovar in Tibet and flows west to enter India in Ladakh. There are tributaries like the Shyok, the Nubra, the Zaskar, and the Hunza, which join the Indus in Kashmir. Indus emerges from the mountains in Attock after flowing through Baltistan and Gilgit.

  • At Mithankot, Beas, Satluj, Ravi, Jhelum and Chenab join the Indus. The Indus River eventually meets the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi. Indus is a very long river.

  1. Ganga River System:

  • Bhagirathi is the headwaters of river Ganga and it is fed by the Gangotri glacier. Alakananda joins it at Devprayag in Uttarakhand.

  • Ganga rises at the confluence of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi and emerges on the plains at Haridwar. Ganga has a number of tributaries.

  • The Yamuna is a right bank tributary of Ganga which originates from the Yamunotri glacier in the Himalayas.

  • The other tributaries like Ghagra, Kosi, Gandak rise in Nepal. These tributaries flood the northern plains and severely damage life and property. These floods also help mankind by enriching the soil for agriculture.

  • Chambal, Betwa, and Son arising from the semi-arid regions of peninsular India joins the Yamuna and hence are Ganga’s tributaries as well.

  • Ganga is, thus, enlarged with its tributaries. It flows eastward till the northernmost part of the Ganga delta, Farakka.

  • At Farakka, Ganga bifurcates into Bhagirathi and Hooghly distributaries. These meet the Bay of Bengal.

  • The mainstream flows into Bangladesh to be joined by the Brahmaputra to form Meghna which flows into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers form a delta known as the Sundarban.

  1. Brahmaputra River System:

    (Video) Class 9 Geography chapter 3 Drainage Notes | Drainage Notes | Our Study Committee

  • The Brahmaputra rises near the Mansarovar lake in Tibet. Most of Brahmaputra's course lies out of India and it is a bit longer than Indus.

  • The Brahmaputra flows parallel to the Himalayan range and is called Tsang Po. At a region called Namcha Barwa, it turns to enter Arunachal Pradesh. Streams named Dibang, Dihang, Lohit join it to be called the Brahmaputra. It forms many riverine islands here.

  • The Brahmaputra overflows to flood the banks of Assam.

The Peninsular River Systems

  1. The Western Ghats serves as a water divide in the peninsular region.

  2. Some of the rivers of this river system are east-flowing while some are west-flowing. Godavari, Krishna, Mahanadi, and Kaveri flow east to drain into the Bay of Bengal. There are many deltas formed by these rivers. Narmada and Tapi flow towards the west to drain into the Arabian Sea and form estuaries.

  3. An account of these rivers are as follows:

  1. Narmada Basin:

  • The Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh give rise to the Narmada River. Narmada flows west through a rift valley.

  • Many wonderful places are associated with Narmada like the 'Marble rocks' near Jabalpur, the Dhauladhar Falls, etc.

  • The basin formed by the Narmada River covers parts of Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh. The tributaries of the river are short and join it at right angles.

  1. Tapi Basin: Satpura gives rise to the Tapi river. It rises in Betul, Madhya Pradesh, and flows parallel to Narmada but is shorter. It flows through Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra.

  2. The Sabarmati, Bharathpuzha, Mahi, and Periyar are the other main west-flowing rivers here.

  3. Godavari Basin: The Godavari is also known as the 'Dakshin Ganga' as it is the largest Peninsular river. It rises in Nasik, Maharashtra at the Western Ghats and drains into the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari Basin is the largest river basin in South India. Maharashtra, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh are drained by the Godavari. Purna, Manjra, Pranhita, Wainganga, and Penganga are its tributaries

  4. Mahanadi Basin: The highlands of Chhattisgarh give rise to Mahanadi which flows through Odisha to meet the Bay of Bengal. The Mahanadi basin drains Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Odisha.

  5. Krishna Basin: Krishna river rises from a spring near Mahabaleshwar. Its tributaries like the Koyana, Ghatprabha, Musi, Tungabhadra, and Bhima join it on its course. The Krishna Basin drains the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh.

  6. Kaveri Basin: The Brahmagiri range of Western Ghats gives rise to the Kaveri river and it flows into the Bay of Bengal in the south of Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. Amravati, Hemavati, Kabini, and Bhavani are tributaries that join Kaveri. The basin drains Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka. Kaveri gives rise to India's second-biggest waterfall Shivasamudram.

Lakes in India

  1. India has numerous lakes and they can be classified into the following types based on size and other features:

  1. Permanent Lakes: Many of the lakes in India are permanent and have water all year round.

  2. Non-Permanent Lakes: There are also non-permanent lakes usually draining the semi-arid regions.

  3. Glacial Lakes: These lakes form from glaciers and ice sheets.

  4. Ox-Bow Lakes: These are formed from meandering rivers.

  5. Lagoons: Lakes called lagoons are formed by spits and bars. Lake Chilka, Kolleru Lake, Pulicat Lake are few such lagoons.

  6. Saltwater Lakes: Some lakes have saline water and are called saltwater lakes. The Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan is a saltwater lake that drains a dry area. It is used for salt production.

  7. Freshwater Lakes: Lakes with freshwater are called freshwater lakes which are mostly glacial in origin and are found in the Himalayan belt. They are snow-fed. However, the largest freshwater lake of India, the Wuller lake located in Jammu and Kashmir is formed due to tectonic activity. Dal Lake, Nainital, Loktak, Bhimtal and Barappani are some other freshwater lakes.

  8. Man-Made Lakes: These are lakes artificially created by man. There have been a few man-made lakes in India like the Guru Govind Sagar.

  1. Lakes have numerous uses some of which are as follows:

    (Video) CBSE Notes Class 9 Geography Chapter 3 - Drainage(Notes in discription)

  1. Lakes are indispensable to humans as they help in the regulation of the river flow.

  2. They are also used for the generation of hydroelectric power.

  3. A typical aquatic ecosystem is created surrounding the lake that helps to provide recreational opportunities, increase natural beauty, and opens the doors to the tourism development of the region.

Rivers and Their Role in the Economy

  1. Rivers play a significant role in the country's economy. They are indispensable. Their significance is as follows:

  1. Rivers attract human settlements in their banks as their water is a necessity for human survival.

  2. They are used in navigation.

  3. The water of rivers also aids in irrigation. This is, in fact, the most important function of rivers as in India agriculture is the prime economic activity for livelihood.

  4. Rivers help in hydroelectric power generation.

Pollution and River

  1. River water has been increasingly used for agricultural, municipal, and domestic purposes for ages which resulted in the reduction of their volume.

  2. Also, untreated pollutants like sewage and untreated pollutants are discharged into the rivers, thus polluting them and even decreasing their capacity of self-cleansing.

  3. Industrialization and urbanization further increase the levels of river pollution.

Important Questions and Answers:

  1. Enumerate the differences between the Himalayan and Peninsular rivers.

Ans: The Himalayan and Peninsular rivers can be differentiated as follows:

Himalayan Rivers

Peninsular Rivers

  1. The Himalayan rivers are perennial.

  1. The peninsular rivers are non-perennial.

  1. Himalayan rivers are much longer.

  1. Peninsular rivers are shorter as compared to their Himalayan counterparts.

  1. Most of the Himalayan rivers are snow-fed and do not completely depend on rainfall for water.

  1. The peninsular rivers depend largely on rainfall for water.

  1. Himalayan rivers do not have shallow courses.

  1. These rivers have much shallower courses.

  1. How do rivers contribute to the country's economy?


Ans: Rivers play a significant role in the economy of the nation and contribute to it in the following ways:

  1. They have helped humans for ages. They have attracted settlers to settle on their banks and perform important economic activities like agriculture.

  2. Water from rivers is used for irrigation, In India, rivers provide water for irrigation which is extremely important as the Indian economy is dependent mainly on agriculture.

  3. Rivers also help in the production of hydroelectricity which is a renewable source of energy.

  4. Rivers also aid in navigation.

  1. What is the importance of lakes?

Ans: Lakes have great importance in various aspects. An account of it given below:

  1. Lakes help in controlling the river flow. During the dry season, they help maintain even water levels in the rivers. And in the rainy season, they help to prevent flooding.

  2. They can be used for the generation of hydel power.

  3. Lakes also serve as a source of recreation and help to develop tourism around them.

  4. Lakes enhance the natural beauty of a place and have their own aquatic micro-ecosystem and biodiversity.

  1. Write a short note on river pollution.

Ans: River pollution can be elaborated as follows:

  1. River water is used for domestic, municipal, and agricultural purposes. This has resulted in the reduction of water volume in these rivers.

  2. On the contrary, heavy loads of untreated pollutants were discharged into the rivers. These include sewage, industrial effluents, agricultural wastes, etc. This affects water quality and its capacity for self-cleansing.

  3. Urbanization and industrialization further added to the pollution of the river bodies.

  4. A lot of programs and action plans have been launched to reduce river pollution and water pollution at large as clean water is indispensable for human survival hence water pollution is a grave cause of concern for human beings.

  1. How are the eastward flowing and westward flowing peninsular rivers different from each other?

Ans: The eastward flowing and westward flowing peninsular rivers are different from each other in the following ways:

Eastward Flowing Rivers

Westward Flowing Rivers

1. The eastward flowing rivers in the peninsular region are generally longer as compared to the westward flowing rivers

1. The westward flowing rivers in the peninsular region are generally shorter with Narmada and Tapi being exceptions.

2. The eastward flowing rivers form deltas near the mouth.

2. The westward flowing rivers do not form Delta at the mouth.


3. The eastward flowing rivers meet the Bay of Bengal.

3. The westward flowing rivers meet the Arabian Sea.

  1. Write about the National River Conservation Plan.

Ans: The National River Conservation Plan can be elaborated as follows:

  1. This plan has the objective of reducing water pollution and improving the quality of river waters.

  2. The National River Conservation Plan which has now been merged with the Ganga Action Plan phase II covered under it $152$ towns, $27$interstate rivers in $16$ states.

  3. This plan had initiated pollution abatement activities in $57$ towns.

  4. There were $215$ schemes of pollution reduction under this plan that were sanctioned.

  5. $69$schemes have so far been completed.

  6. A lot of sewage water has been treated under this plan.

  1. Write a short note on the various drainage patterns.

Ans: The various drainage patterns are:

  1. Dendritic- Dendritic pattern develops on the slope of the terrain. The complete system resembles branches of a tree hence named dendritic.

  2. Trellis- The trellis drainage pattern develops when the tributaries join the river at right angles. This type of drainage pattern develops when soft and hard rocks lie parallel to each other.

  3. Rectangular- A strongly jointed rocky terrain develops a rectangular drainage system.

  4. Radial- In a radial drainage system, streams rise from an elevated area and flow in different directions.

  1. Write a short note on the Indus River system.

Ans: The river Indus rises near Mansarovar in Tibet and flows west to enter India in Ladakh. There are tributaries like the Shyok, the Nubra, the Zaskar, and the Hunza, which join the Indus in Kashmir. Indus emerges from the mountains in Attock after flowing through Baltistan and Gilgit. At Mithankot, Beas, Satluj, Ravi, Jhelum and Chenab join the Indus. The Indus River eventually meets the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi. Indus is a very long river. India can use only $20$percent of India's water which is used for irrigation in Haryana, Punjab, and parts of Rajasthan.

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  1. The revision time before the exam requires students to cover an entire syllabus comprising several chapters. Considering the need for quick revision, these notes have been crafted to help you thoroughly revise all important topics of the chapter before your Geography exam.

  2. The subject experts have provided short and precise notes for each topic and subtopic covered in this chapter. Thus, these will help you to learn and go over all the major areas of the chapter with a quick glance even before you enter the exam hall.

  3. Moreover, these notes have been prepared in a manner that can be easily understood and retained by students. Our subject experts have kept the content simple.

  4. These notes have been curated by our Geography experts who know the in and out of the chapter. They have followed the latest edition of the NCERT book and the prescribed pattern for answering CBSE exam questions.

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(Video) Drainage geography ch class 9 handwritten notes download (link in discription).


What is drainage class 9 geography? ›

'Drainage' is a term that defines an area's river system. A drainage basin or river basin is an area that is drained by a single river system. A water division is considered an upland that divides two irrigation systems that are adjacent to each other.

What is drainage short note? ›

Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of a surface's water and sub-surface water from an area with excess of water.

What is drainage Class 9 short answer? ›

Answer: Drainage: The term 'drainage means the river system of an area. It is a system of flowing water from the higher level to the lower level.

What is drainage Ncert? ›

The flow of water through well-defined channels is known as 'drainage' and the network of such channels is called a 'drainage system'. The drainage pattern of an area is the outcome of the geological time period, nature and structure of rocks, topography, slope, amount of water flowing and the periodicity of the flow.

Which is the largest basin in India? ›

There are 20 river basins/draining areas, large and small, in India. The Ganga basin is the largest.

What is called drainage basin? ›

drainage basin, also called catchment area, or (in North America) watershed, area from which all precipitation flows to a single stream or set of streams.

What are the uses of drainage? ›

Drainage systems are in place to remove the excess water in development. This could be floodwater, rainwater, and different kinds of runoff. Drainage systems are also in place to effectively remove wastewater, which is referred to as a sewer system.

Which part of the land is called water divide? ›

A mountain or an upland separates two drainage basins in an elevated area. Such an upland is known as a water divide.

Which is the largest peninsular river? ›

Godavari, also known as 'Dakshin Ganga' – the South Ganges, is the longest river of peninsular India, and the second longest river of India after the Ganges.

Which river is the tributary of Indus River? ›

The Indus is the western most River system in the subcontinent. Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Satluj are its main tributaries.

Is Ganga a antecedent river? ›

The Indus, Satluj, Ganga, Sarju (Kali), Arun (a tributary of Kosi), Tista and Brahmaputra are some of the important antecedent rivers, originating from beyond the Greater Himalayas. The Rivers which follow the general direction of slope are known as the consequent rivers.

Which is antecedent river? ›

An antecedent stream is a stream that maintains its original course and pattern despite the changes in underlying rock topography. A stream with a dendritic drainage pattern, for example, can be subject to slow tectonic uplift.

What is the name of Chapter 3 in geography? ›

CBSE Notes Class 9 Geography Chapter 3 - Drainage.

Who is the largest river in India? ›

At over three thousand kilometers long, the Indus is the longest river of India as of 2022. It originates in Tibet from Lake Mansarovar before flowing through the regions of Ladakh and Punjab, joining the Arabian Sea at Pakistan's Karachi port.

Which is the largest river of our country? ›

The Ganges River- 2525 km

The Ganges is the longest river in India and also the largest river in India followed by Godavari (1465 kms). The states that are covered by this waterbody are Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and West Bengal.

Which river has the smallest basin in India? ›

The Avari River, the smallest or shortest river in India, has the smallest river basin in the country.

What are the two main types of drainage system? ›

There are two main types of drainage system options: surface drains and french drains. Surface drainage systems consist of a few ground-level areas drains that are connected to PVC piping. When it rains, water flows down the drains, into the piping, and is transferred away from the house.

What is a small river called? ›

Small rivers can be referred to using names such as creek, brook, rivulet, and rill.

What is the 10 river name? ›

Top 10 Rivers in India by Length
Sl. No.NameOriginates From
2GodavariNasik Hills
3KrishnaNear Mahabaleshwar in Maharashtra
4NarmadaAmarkantak hill in Madhya Pradesh
6 more rows
14 Apr 2021

What is name of river? ›

The major rivers of India are: Flowing into the Arabian Sea: Narmada, Tapi, Sindhu, Sabarmati, Mahi, Purna. Flowing into the Bay of Bengal: Brahmaputra, Yamuna, Ganga, Meghna, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri.

What are the 4 basic drainage basins? ›

California (4)
  • North Coast Drainage.
  • Sacramento Drainage.
  • Northeast Interior Basins.
  • Central Coast Drainage.
  • San Joaquin Drainage.
  • South Coast Drainage.
  • Southeast Desert Basins.

What is a drained river called? ›

A river basin is the portion of land drained by a river and its tributaries.

Which is the first largest river basin in India? ›

The Ganga basin is the largest. Narmada river is the fifth largest river and is also the largest west flowing river. Narmada basin has been shown at index 15 in the basin map.

What are the four types of drainage? ›

These are dendritic, trellis, rectangular, and radial patterns.

What are drains made of? ›

What are drainage pipes made of? Most domestic drainage pipes are now made from plastic, or PVC-U to use the proper term. PVC-U pipes are lighter and easier to handle than traditional clay drains. Clay drainage is still used on some commercial installations.

What is natural drainage? ›

Natural drainage means a drainage consisting of native soils such as a natural swale or topographic depression which gathers or conveys run-off to a permanent or intermittent watercourse or waterbody.

Which river has the world largest drainage basin? ›

The Amazon river forms the largest drainage basin in the world.

Which rivers are called perennial? ›

The rivers that have water throughout the year are called perennial rivers. In India Himalayan Rivers like Ganga and Bhramaputra are perennial rivers. These are both rain fed and formed through melting of the glaciers.

What is Delta Delta is a body of water? ›

Deltas are wetlands that form as rivers empty their water and sediment into another body of water, such as an ocean, lake, or another river. Although very uncommon, deltas can also empty into land. A river moves more slowly as it nears its mouth, or end.

Which is deepest river in the world? ›

From its tributaries to where it meets the Atlantic Ocean, the massive river includes rapids, wetlands, floodplains, lakes and swamps. In addition, the Congo River is the world's deepest recorded river at 720 feet (220 meters) deep in parts — too deep for light to penetrate, The New York Times reported.

Which is two largest peninsular river? ›

The largest river of Peninsular India is Godavari. The second-longest river Godavari is called as Vridh Ganga.

Which is the shortest peninsular river in India? ›

Tapi River

Which river is called Father of water? ›

The word Mississippi comes from the native Americans, Misi-ziibi, which means “Big River” or “Father of Waters”. The French called the river Messipi.

Which river is called Nile of Pakistan? ›

"Indus River".

Which is largest tributary of Indus? ›

The Chenab River is the largest tributary of the river Indus. It has a total length of about 605 miles (974 km), and it also feeds irrigation canals. The Chenab empties into the River Sutlej.

What is a drainage in geography? ›

The flow of water through well-defined channels is known as drainage and the network of such channels is known as drainage system. The drainage pattern of an area is the result of the geological time period, nature, and structure of rocks, topography, slope, etc.

What is drainage pattern Class 9? ›

Drainage Patterns:

The stream and its tributaries resemble the branches of a tree. Hence, it is called dendritic pattern. Trellis Drainage Pattern: When a river is joined by its tributaries at almost right angles, it develops a trellis pattern.

What is drainage system in India? ›

Indian drainage system consists of a large number of small and big rivers. It is the outcome of the evolutionary process of the three major physiographic units and the nature and characteristics of precipitation. The Himalayan drainage system includes the Ganga, the Indus and the Brahmaputra river basins.

What is the name of Chapter 3 in geography? ›

CBSE Notes Class 9 Geography Chapter 3 - Drainage.

What is drainage pattern PDF? ›

Drainage patterns or nets are classified on the basis of their form and texture. Their shape or pattern develops in response to the local topography and subsurface geology. Drainage channels develop where surface runoff is enhanced and earth materials provide the least resistance to erosion.

What are the 4 types of drainage patterns? ›

These are dendritic, trellis, rectangular, and radial patterns.

What is a river system called? ›

A river system is also called a drainage basin or watershed. A river's watershed includes the river, all its tributaries, and any groundwater resources in the area. The end of a river is its mouth. Here, the river empties into another body of water—a larger river, a lake, or the ocean.

What is another name for drainage basin? ›

drainage basin, also called catchment area, or (in North America) watershed, area from which all precipitation flows to a single stream or set of streams.

Which is the oldest drainage system? ›

Mesopotamia. The Mesopotamians introduced the world to clay sewer pipes around 4000 BCE, with the earliest examples found in the Temple of Bel at Nippur and at Eshnunna, utilised to remove wastewater from sites, and capture rainwater, in wells.

Which river has the largest drainage system in India? ›

There are 20 river basins/draining areas, large and small, in India. The Ganga basin is the largest.

Which river has the largest drainage pattern in India? ›

The world's largest drainage basin is of the Amazon river and in India, the river Ganga has the largest river basin.

What is natural gas 8 geography? ›

What is natural gas? Answer: Natural gas is a fossil fuel obtained with petroleum deposits in oil fields.

What is the name of Chapter 3 of geography class 8? ›

NCERT Solutions Class 8 Geography Chapter 3 – Mineral and Power Resources.

What is Lake Class 9? ›

Lake is a large body of water that is entirely surrounded by land.


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