AP Human Geography Theories and Models Review. Demographic Transition Model Stage One – High CBR High CDR Stage One – High CBR High CDR Stage Two – High - [PPT Powerpoint] (2022)

  • AP Human GeographyTheories and Models Review

  • Demographic Transition ModelStage One High CBR High CDRStage TwoHigh CBR decreasing CDRRapid population growthStage ThreeDecreasing CBR, increasing decreasing CDRHigh life expectancySlowerpopulation growthStage Four Plateauing of CBR and CDRHigh lifeexpectancyConstant or decreasing NIR (population growth)StageFive(?) Post-industrial service based societiesNegative populationgrowth

  • Epidemiological Transition ModelOrmanStates that withdevelopment comes health improvementsHealth becomes less of afactor as development increasesFlaws heart disease in MDCs,AIDS/HIV (in both LDCs and MDCs), obesity in U.S. impacting therich

  • Gravity ModelUses size of location and distance as factors fortravelSize of location takes precedent over distanceThe gravitymodel can be used to estimate:Traffic Flows Migration between twoareas The number of people likely to use one central place

  • Earnest Ravenstein (1885)1) Most migrants only travel shortdistances to higher populated areas2) Migrants created gaps throughthe flow towards the higher populated areas filling up spacebetween origin and destination3) Counter-current of migration atdestination4) Long distance migrants flock towards world cities orlarge industrial areas5) The natives of towns are less migratorythan those of the rural parts of the country6) Females are moremigratory than malesUntil recentlyMen, or couples w/o children,young adult or senior citizens, no dependents

  • Migration IssuesPush factorsThings that push people to move awayfrom a locationPull factorsThings that draw people to alocationForced MigrationPeople forced to leave a given placepermanentlyUsually based on ethnicity, religion, ideology,etc.RefugeesPeople leaving a location for fear of persecution ordeathWar-torn nations, religious persecutionCubanrefugeesIntervening obstaclesThings that block migrationstreamsIntervening opportunitiesThings that attract people while inthe migration stream

  • Thomas MalthusPopulation increases geometricallyFood productionincreases arithmeticallyPopulation growth will create a foodshortage and this cannot keep up with the NIRCriticisms technologynot included, no mention of who controls food

    (Video) Stages of the Demographic Transition Model

  • Division within a ReligionSchism separation of a religion intotwo or more branches due to fundamental conflictsBranch major splitin religious ideology within a specific religion. Often caused byschisms.Denomination smaller division of religions based on lesssignificant differences and traditions (often stem from regionalchanges and can be a result of DiasporaSect small offshoots of adenomination that retain the origins and basic belief structure,but differ in organization these can often be found as progressivereligions

  • Forced and Voluntary Movements of ReligionsDiaspora anacculturation of a religion due to forced movement from onelocation to othersPilgrimage voluntary treks to holy land orsymbolic holy places (structures)Ghettos areas created (often foundin Europe) to house people of a given religion that is not accepted(ghettos can house religions who are victims of Diaspora)ReligiousPersecution punishment for religious beliefs

  • Von ThunenAgricultural land use modelAssumptionsAll areas areequally fertileNo intervening physical environmentAll areas aroundthe world are similarUses BID RENT (OR LAND RENT) to figure out howmuch land will cost by calculating market value of good, cost oftransportation to market, and production costsThis can determinehow much land will cost in each ring based on the each of thestated costsMilkshed area surrounding the CBD or market area wheremilk can be produced (anywhere outside the ring milk will go baddue to travel times)

  • Mackinders Heartland Rimland Theory

  • Heartland/RimlandHeartland core of a location orcontinentOriginally the core of Eurasia (Eastern Europe)The one whocontrols this region can control the worldAll heartlands sharesimilarities (U.S. heartland vs. Eastern Europe vs. CentralIndia)Rimland areas surrounding heartlandsUsually have limitedaccess to the heartlands and cultures are very differentBordersealands and/or maritime regions

  • StateA defined area of space that includes four keyfeatures:Internationally recognizes bordersGoverning bodyPermanentpopulationSovereignty (governmental control of activities withinthe state)NationA group of people who share common cultural traitsand are unified based on those traits (language, ethnicity,religion, etc.)National boundaries can surpass political (or state)boundaries.

  • Nation-State vs. Multi-nation StateNation-states are states thatshare the same nationality throughout the entire politicalboundaryJapan, Portugal (w/o Azores)

    (Video) Understanding Population Pyramids & The DTM (AP Human Geography)

    Multi-nation states are states that have several differentnationalities within the political boundariesUnited States, UnitedKingdom, Russia

  • IrredentismThe desire to annex (or claim) territory currentlyoccupied or governed by another state as ones own due to current orhistorical similaritiesEthnic or cultural tiesPrevious control ofterritoryHistoric DiasporaNationalismThe ideology led by apopulation to unify based on a unified nationalityCommonly used inrevolutions, irredentist claims, or independence movementsPurposeis usually centered around popular sovereignty and the idea thatthe citizens should be in control

  • Self Determination Theory (SDT)Edward Deci and RichardRyanPeople will naturally try to control their environment and theactivities that take place within that environmentWhen others takecontrol or determine the fate of a given area, SDT can lead torevolt, coup detat, or irredentism

  • Enclave and ExclaveExclave a bounded (non-island) piece ofterritory that is part of a particular state but lies separatedfrom it by the territory of another stateEnclave a piece ofterritory that is surrounded by another political unit of which itis not a part

  • Multi-state (International Level)The use of political boundariesto define international organizations or multi-stateorganizationsSoviet UnionEuropean UnionUnited NationsTheseorganizations share one or more common:Political interestsMilitaryinterests (NATO)Economic interestsHuman interestsCulturalinterests

  • Colonialism vs. NeocolonialismColonialism sovereign state takescontrol over an uninhabited or uncontrolled parcel of land andclaims it as their own Imperialism sovereign state takes controlover another sovereign state or group of people to imposepolitical, cultural, and economic values on the people (Africa,Southeast Asia, United States)Neocolonialism current dependence offormer colonies on the previous colonizer (sub-Saharan Africa).Also based on globalization and capitalist claims to resourcesaround the world

  • Cultural DeterminismA groups culture can overcome anyenvironmental obstacles if they are determined to do so.If theobstacle is too large, the group will move on, or continue toovercome their physical environment.Examples?StonehengePyramids inEgypt

    (Video) Demographic Transition Model Review

  • PossibilismThis theory challenges environmental determinism andplaces limits on cultural determinismPossibilism is the belief thatwhile people may face challenges regarding physical environment,choices are always present as to how one can deal with eachproblemHowever, possibilists still retain the notion that humanscant control all aspects of their environment

  • Cultural HearthsThe center or starting point of a culturaltraitRegions can be defined by hearthsExamples?Vatican CityBirth ofBlues (Memphis, Tennessee)

  • Cultural DiffusionRelocation diffusionHierarchicaldiffusionContagious diffusionStimulus diffusionExpansiondiffusion

  • AcculturationThe spread of a cultural complex or a culturaltrait from one location to anotherThe process of another cultureembracing or adding that cultural trait to their culturalcomplexAssimilationA culture is completely dominated by anothercultureForced migrationImperialization

  • Development ModelsRostows Stages of DevelopmentalGrowthTraditionalTransitional (pre-conditional takeoff)TakeoffDriveto maturityMass consumption

  • Core-Periphery ModelFriedmann (1966)World can be dividedinto:Core: industrialized cities and areas around the world thatare hubs for social and economic activityTransitional: developingareas that strive to reach core status, but can be left out by thepower of the corePeriphery: locations and countries that are at themercy of core countries and often support the economic success ofthese areasMost are trying to get to transitional, but are forcedto remain periphery

  • Wallersteins World Systems TheoryThe redistribution of resources(natural or human) from periphery to transitional and coreareasWorld Systems theories can help explain slow development,migratory patterns, economic advantages, etc.

    (Video) HuGeo - Demographic Transition Model

  • Weber Least Cost TheroyIndustries will naturally locatethemselves in places where they can have the least cost ofproduction/manufacturingDistance to marketLabor costsAccess toresourcesTransportationBased on this theory, some parts of theworld are likely to industrialize much more rapidly than othersSomeareas are likely to never industrialize

  • Hotellings ModelLocational Interdependence TheoryAgglomerationsgroupings of specific industries in certain areas due tospecificity, resources needed, and labor forceSilicon ValleyRustbeltCoal miningHotelling states that companies will naturally formagglomerations and seek locations close to their competitors (thinkBest Buy and Circuit City)People will go to one or the other andthis could maximize their market shareCompete by service andproduct, NOT PRICE

  • Central Place TheoryThe central place theory, originally coinedby Walter Christaller, proposes that all settlements will belocated near central placesRivers, government buildings, physicalfeatures, or places of interestThe people that utilize services inthis place are called the market

  • HinterlandThe areas that surround urban areas and that supporturban markets/activitiesFarmland, smaller rural manufacturing,etc.Originally meant to define areas surrounding ports orriversForeland = river banks and ports for shippingHinterland areasused to make products for shipping

  • *Figure: 13-22

    Title: Suburban development patterns in the United Kingdom andthe United States.

    Caption: The United States has much more sprawl than the UnitedKingdom. In the United Kingdom, new housing is more likely to beconcentrated in new towns or planned extensions of existing smalltowns, whereas in the United States growth occurs in discontinuousdevelopments.

    (Video) Saturday Sessions: AP Human Geography Exam Review

FAQs

What is the demographic transition model AP Human Geography? ›

The demographic transition model is a tool demographers use to categorize countries' population growth rates and economic structures. The model analyzes birth rates, death rates, and total population trends in a society at a given point of time.

What population characteristics CBR CDR NIR would a possible demographic transition stage 5 include? ›

Stage 5 would be characterized by very low CBR, an increasing CDR, and therefore a negative NIR. The population of a country in stage 5 of the demographic transition would be much older. The elderly support ratio is the number of working age people (ages 15–64) divided by the number of persons 65 and older.

What countries are in DTM Stage 1? ›

Stage 1 of the Demographic Transition Model is considered the pre-industrial stage, or pre-transition, and today no countries are classified within Stage 1 of the DTM.

What is Stage 5 of the DTM? ›

Stage 5: Total population is still high but starting to decline due to the birth rate falling (to 7 per 1,000) below the death rate (9 per 1,000). The population will start to fall as it is no longer replacing itself. The population is ageing and will gradually be dominated by older people.

What are the 4 types of demographic transition? ›

The demographic transition model was initially proposed in 1929 by demographer Warren Thompson. The model has four stages: pre-industrial, urbanizing/industrializing, mature industrial, and post-industrial.

What are the 5 demographic stages? ›

Demographic cycle
  • (1) FIRST STAGE (High stationary) It is characterized by both. ...
  • (2) SECOND STAGE (Early expanding) It begins with the. ...
  • (3) THIRD STAGE (Late expanding) *Death rate declines further and. ...
  • (4) FOURTH STAGE (Low stationary) This stage is characterized with. ...
  • (5) FIFTH STAGE: (Declining)

What is Stage 2 of the demographic transition model? ›

Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) is characterized by a rapid decrease in a country's death rate while the birth rate remains high. As such, the total population of a country in Stage 2 will rise because births outnumber deaths, not because the birth rate is rising.

What is a Stage 4 population pyramid? ›

In Stage 4 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM), birth rates and death rates are both low, stabilizing total population growth.

What is Stage 2 of the demographic transition model called? ›

STAGE 2: HIGH GROWTH RATE

Around the mid-1700s, global populations began to grow ten times faster than in the past for two reasons: The Industrial Revolution and increased wealth. The Industrial Revolution brought with it a variety of technological improvements in agricultural production and food supply.

What countries are Stage 2? ›

Still, there are a number of countries that remain in Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition for a variety of social and economic reasons, including much of Sub-Saharan Africa, Guatemala, Nauru, Palestine, Yemen and Afghanistan.

What happens during a pre-industrial stage 1 of the Demographic Transition? ›

The first stage of the demographic transition is the pre-industrial stage. During this stage, the population is stable, with both high birth rates and high death rates. The death rates are high because there is increased disease, minimal medical care, poor sanitation, and limited food supplies.

What is a Stage 3 country? ›

As such, Stage 3 is often viewed as a marker of significant development. Examples of Stage 3 countries are Botswana, Colombia, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, and the United Arab Emirates, just to name a few.

Is any country in stage 5? ›

Countries currently in stage five are Japan and a number in Eastern Europe (Germany, Estonia, Ukraine). Fewer young adults are having children. Some stage 5 governments promote pro-natalist policies to try and stunt the population decrease by incentivizing having children.

Why Is Japan a stage 5 country? ›

Countries in stage 5 of the DTM have lower birth rates than death rates, which means the population total is declining, and the population structure is aging. An example is Japan where around 28% of the total population is aged over 65.

What are Stage 5 countries? ›

In recent years a few countries, primarily in Eastern and Southern Europe, have reached a negative rate of natural increase as their death rates are higher than their birth rates. Possible examples of Stage 5 countries are Croatia, Estonia, Germany, Greece, Japan, Portugal and Ukraine.

What stage is high birth rate and low death rate? ›

Stage 1 - High Fluctuating

Birth Rate and Death rate are both high. Population growth is slow and fluctuating.

What country is in Stage 2 of the demographic transition? ›

Example: poorest developing countries like Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bolivia, sub-Saharan countries such as Niger, Uganda and middle east countries like Yemen, Palestinian Territories are still in stage 2. Birth rate falls due to the availability of contraception.

What happens in each stage of demographic transition? ›

Stages of the Demographic Transition

Stage 1—High birth and death rates lead to slow population growth. Stage 2—The death rate falls, but the birth rate remains high, leading to faster population growth. Stage 3—The birth rate starts to fall, so population growth starts to slow.

What is the industrial stage? ›

The third stage of the demographic transition model, characterized by falling birth rates that close the gap with falling death rates and reduce the rate of population growth.

What is low stationary stage? ›

Fourth stage (Low stationary)- This stage is characterized by low birth and low death rate with the result that the population becomes stationary. Most industrialized countries have gone through a demographic transition from a high birth and high death rates to low birth and low death rates.

What are the 3 stages of demographic transition? ›

Stages of the Demographic Transition

Stage 1—High birth and death rates lead to slow population growth. Stage 2—The death rate falls but the birth rate remains high, leading to faster population growth. Stage 3—The birth rate starts to fall, so population growth starts to slow.

Why is the US in stage 4? ›

Countries that are in Stage 4 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) are countries with low birth and death rates, such as Canada, Argentina, the United States, South Korea, Brazil, China, and many countries in Europe.

Which stage of the demographic transition has high birth rates and high death rates? ›

In the demographic transition model, a country begins in Stage 1, the preindustrial stage. In Stage 1 (Figure 3.4. 1), both birth rates and death rates are high. The high death rates are because of disease and potential food scarcity.

What is Stage 4 of the demographic transition model called? ›

STAGE 4: LOW GROWTH RATE. A nation enters Stage 4 of the demographic transition model when CBRs equal to or become less than CDRs. When CBRs are equal to CDRs, a nation will experience zero population growth (ZPG).

What does a Stage 1 population pyramid look like? ›

Stage 1, for example, is represented by a sharply tapering pyramid sitting on a broad base, reflecting high fertility and high mortality rates among the younger age groups. Limited by high mortality, the population increases slowly and remains relatively small.

Why is Brazil a stage 4 country? ›

Brazil is currently in stage 4 of the demographic transition model (DTM) along with Argentina, the United States and much of Europe, however the country stands out due to the fast pace and lack of government intervention during its transition.

What factors affect the population patterns in the region? ›

The main factors determining population distribution are : climate, landforms, topography, soil, energy and mineral resources, accessibility like distance from sea coast, natural harbours, navigable rivers or canals, cultural factors, political boundaries, controls on migration and trade, government policies, types of ...

In which stage of demographic transition is the population growth rate highest? ›

During the first phase, the population growth rate rises as the death rate declines while the birth rate remains high. In the second phase, the growth rate declines (but remains positive) due to a decline in the birth rate.

Why is the demographic transition model important? ›

Using the Demographic Transition Model, demographers can better understand a country's current population growth based on its placement within one of five stages and then pass on that data to be used for addressing economic and social policies within a country and across nations.

Why is Germany in stage 5 of the DTM? ›

- increase in population over the age of 65 due to long life expectancy and medical knowledge.

Why is Congo Stage 2? ›

The Democratic Republic of Congo is in stage two for multiple reasons. The extremely high birth rate and total fertility rate of 4.53 children per woman at the current time has led to an extreme amount of children.

What age range suffers from high mortality rates? ›

Globally deaths among adolescents aged 15 to 19 years accounted for 43% of all deaths in those aged 5 to 24 years. Approximately 569 000 older adolescents (15 to 19 years) and 762 000 young adults (20 to 24 years) died in 2020. Females have lower mortality rates than males in these age groups.

What are the four stages of the demographic transition quizlet? ›

There are four stages in the demographic transition. Low growth, high growth, moderate growth, and low growth. When a country enters stage four, it has in sense completed a cycle. It began with a low natural increase is stage one.

What is an example of demographic transition? ›

For example, numerous improvements in public health reduce mortality, especially childhood mortality. Prior to the mid-20th century, these improvements in public health were primarily in the areas of food handling, water supply, sewage, and personal hygiene.

What happens during the postindustrial stage of a demographic transition quizlet? ›

Post Industrial Stage: fertility rates and mortility rates stabilize at low levels with large populations. Population growth- if any- is negligible.

Why is India a Stage 3 country? ›

- Number of people engaged in secondary and tertiary activities is increasing. - Due to an increase in the literacy rate, people have understood the importance of family planning. Therefore, there is a decrease in the size of the family. - Hence, India is passing through Stage 3 of the demographic transition.

What is Stage 4 of the epidemiological transition? ›

Olshansky and Ault [10] proposed a “fourth stage” of epidemiologic transition, “The Age of Delayed Degenerative Diseases,” in which declining age-specific mortality results in a gradual shift of non-communicable burden to older ages, with underlying causes of death showing little change overall.

Is Nigeria a Stage 2 country? ›

The combination of high fertility and declining mortality, resulting in a period of high population growth rate, puts Nigeria in a “demographic trap”. This typically happens in the second stage of a demographic transition.

Is Italy a stage 5 country? ›

Kenya appears to be transitioning from higher birth rates to lower birth rates (stage 2 moving to 3) while the U.S. is in Stage 4, (low birth and death rates, close to ZPG), and Italy is stage 5 (low birth and lower death rates, population decline).

Why is Japan's population decreasing? ›

The aging of Japanese society, characterized by sub-replacement fertility rates and high life expectancy, is expected to continue. Japan had a post-war baby boom between 1947 and 1949, followed by a prolonged period of low fertility. These trends resulted in the decline of Japan's population beginning in 2011.

How is natural increase rate calculated? ›

The rate of natural increase refers to the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths occurring in a year, divided by the mid-year population of that year, multiplied by a factor (usually 1,000).

Is Japan a Stage 4? ›

Japan is in the fifth stage of the demographic transition model meaning that their birth rate is decreasing, their death rate is low and their rate of natural increase is negative.

What is the death rate in Japan? ›

Japan: Demographics
ReferenceLast
PopulationSep 202212,475
Birth Rate20206.8
Births2020840,835
Death Rate202011.1
2 more rows

Is Stage 5 DTM bad? ›

In a Stage 5 country example, the death rate may be as high as 9 per 1,000 people, but the birth rate is only 7 per 1,000 people. In this example, the number of new births cannot keep up with the number of aging and dying people. In some rare cases, a negative population growth rate does not determine stage 5 DTM.

Are any countries in Stage 1? ›

Stage 1 of the Demographic Transition Model is considered the pre-industrial stage, or pre-transition, and today no countries are classified within Stage 1 of the DTM. This is quite a feat given that for all of human history up until the 18th Century, all countries were considered within Stage 1.

What happens in the final stage of the demographic transition quizlet? ›

Answer: entry into Stage 5 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) - theoretically. In Stage 5 of the DTM a country experiences loss to the overall population as the death rate becomes higher than the birth rate. The negative population growth rate is not an immediate effect however.

Which type of pyramid indicates a population in which there is a high birth rate a high death rate and a short life expectancy? ›

Expansive pyramid: This pyramid indicates a fast-growing population. The apex is narrow and the base is broad. The population is high in young ages indicating a high birth rate and narrow apex indicating low life expectancy.

Who made the demographic transition model? ›

The "Demographic Transition" is a model that describes population change over time. It is based on an interpretation begun in 1929 by the American demographer Warren Thompson, of the observed changes, or transitions, in birth and death rates in industrialized societies over the past two hundred years or so.

What countries are in stage 2 of the demographic transition model? ›

Africa, Asia, and Latin America moved into Stage 2 of the demographic transition model 200 years later for different reasons than their European and North American counterparts. The medicine created in Europe and North America was brought into these emerging nations, creating what is now called the medical revolution.

What stage of the Demographic Transition is the US in? ›

Examples of countries in Stage 4 of the Demographic Transition are Argentina, Australia, Canada, China, Brazil, most of Europe, Singapore, South Korea, and the U.S.

What is the Von thunen model AP Human Geography? ›

AP Human Geography 🚜

The Von Thunen Model attempts to differentiate between land use patterns based on the different scales of agricultural production. More specifically, it relates transportation costs to distance from the market in an attempt to further explain rural land use.

What is Stage 2 of the demographic transition model? ›

Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) is characterized by a rapid decrease in a country's death rate while the birth rate remains high. As such, the total population of a country in Stage 2 will rise because births outnumber deaths, not because the birth rate is rising.

What is a Stage 3 country? ›

Stage three countries start to become more industrialized, which means they are more urbanized and the total fertility rate goes down. Countries that are currently in stage three are Mexico, India, Colombia, and South Africa.

What country is in Stage 3 of the demographic transition? ›

As such, Stage 3 is often viewed as a marker of significant development. Examples of Stage 3 countries are Botswana, Colombia, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Mexico, South Africa, and the United Arab Emirates, just to name a few.

What are the 3 stages of demographic transition? ›

Stages of the Demographic Transition

Stage 1—High birth and death rates lead to slow population growth. Stage 2—The death rate falls but the birth rate remains high, leading to faster population growth. Stage 3—The birth rate starts to fall, so population growth starts to slow.

What is a Stage 4 country? ›

Countries that are in Stage 4 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) are countries with low birth and death rates, such as Canada, Argentina, the United States, South Korea, Brazil, China, and many countries in Europe.

What is Stage 4 of the demographic transition model called? ›

STAGE 4: LOW GROWTH RATE. A nation enters Stage 4 of the demographic transition model when CBRs equal to or become less than CDRs. When CBRs are equal to CDRs, a nation will experience zero population growth (ZPG).

What is the life expectancy in Stage 1 of DTM? ›

The demographic transition is divided into 5 stages. Stage one: high mortality and high fertility--a life expectancy at birth (LEB) of under 45 years and a total fertility rate (TFR) of more than 6.5.

What are the four stages of the demographic transition quizlet? ›

There are four stages in the demographic transition. Low growth, high growth, moderate growth, and low growth. When a country enters stage four, it has in sense completed a cycle. It began with a low natural increase is stage one.

In which stage of demographic transition is the population growth rate highest? ›

During the first phase, the population growth rate rises as the death rate declines while the birth rate remains high. In the second phase, the growth rate declines (but remains positive) due to a decline in the birth rate.

What are the 4 zones in Von Thunen model? ›

What are the four rings of the Von Thunen model? Von Thunen's model centers around the city center and market. Concentric zones outward form the first ring with dairy and produce, the second ring with wood, the third ring with grains, and the fourth ring with ranching and livestock.

What are the 4 rings of the Von Thunen model? ›

There are generally four main circles around the city that consist, from nearest to a town and moving outwards, of: 1) intense farming, 2) forest lands, 3) extensive farming, and 4) grazing. Rent prices for land are high near a city.

What is the Von Thunen model in simple terms? ›

The Von Thünen model is a predictive theory in human geography that predicts humans will use land in relation to the cost of land and the cost of transporting products to market.

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