AP Human GeographyTheories and Models Review
Demographic Transition ModelStage One High CBR High CDRStage TwoHigh CBR decreasing CDRRapid population growthStage ThreeDecreasing CBR, increasing decreasing CDRHigh life expectancySlowerpopulation growthStage Four Plateauing of CBR and CDRHigh lifeexpectancyConstant or decreasing NIR (population growth)StageFive(?) Post-industrial service based societiesNegative populationgrowth
Epidemiological Transition ModelOrmanStates that withdevelopment comes health improvementsHealth becomes less of afactor as development increasesFlaws heart disease in MDCs,AIDS/HIV (in both LDCs and MDCs), obesity in U.S. impacting therich
Gravity ModelUses size of location and distance as factors fortravelSize of location takes precedent over distanceThe gravitymodel can be used to estimate:Traffic Flows Migration between twoareas The number of people likely to use one central place
Earnest Ravenstein (1885)1) Most migrants only travel shortdistances to higher populated areas2) Migrants created gaps throughthe flow towards the higher populated areas filling up spacebetween origin and destination3) Counter-current of migration atdestination4) Long distance migrants flock towards world cities orlarge industrial areas5) The natives of towns are less migratorythan those of the rural parts of the country6) Females are moremigratory than malesUntil recentlyMen, or couples w/o children,young adult or senior citizens, no dependents
Migration IssuesPush factorsThings that push people to move awayfrom a locationPull factorsThings that draw people to alocationForced MigrationPeople forced to leave a given placepermanentlyUsually based on ethnicity, religion, ideology,etc.RefugeesPeople leaving a location for fear of persecution ordeathWar-torn nations, religious persecutionCubanrefugeesIntervening obstaclesThings that block migrationstreamsIntervening opportunitiesThings that attract people while inthe migration stream
Thomas MalthusPopulation increases geometricallyFood productionincreases arithmeticallyPopulation growth will create a foodshortage and this cannot keep up with the NIRCriticisms technologynot included, no mention of who controls food
Division within a ReligionSchism separation of a religion intotwo or more branches due to fundamental conflictsBranch major splitin religious ideology within a specific religion. Often caused byschisms.Denomination smaller division of religions based on lesssignificant differences and traditions (often stem from regionalchanges and can be a result of DiasporaSect small offshoots of adenomination that retain the origins and basic belief structure,but differ in organization these can often be found as progressivereligions
Forced and Voluntary Movements of ReligionsDiaspora anacculturation of a religion due to forced movement from onelocation to othersPilgrimage voluntary treks to holy land orsymbolic holy places (structures)Ghettos areas created (often foundin Europe) to house people of a given religion that is not accepted(ghettos can house religions who are victims of Diaspora)ReligiousPersecution punishment for religious beliefs
Von ThunenAgricultural land use modelAssumptionsAll areas areequally fertileNo intervening physical environmentAll areas aroundthe world are similarUses BID RENT (OR LAND RENT) to figure out howmuch land will cost by calculating market value of good, cost oftransportation to market, and production costsThis can determinehow much land will cost in each ring based on the each of thestated costsMilkshed area surrounding the CBD or market area wheremilk can be produced (anywhere outside the ring milk will go baddue to travel times)
Mackinders Heartland Rimland Theory
Heartland/RimlandHeartland core of a location orcontinentOriginally the core of Eurasia (Eastern Europe)The one whocontrols this region can control the worldAll heartlands sharesimilarities (U.S. heartland vs. Eastern Europe vs. CentralIndia)Rimland areas surrounding heartlandsUsually have limitedaccess to the heartlands and cultures are very differentBordersealands and/or maritime regions
StateA defined area of space that includes four keyfeatures:Internationally recognizes bordersGoverning bodyPermanentpopulationSovereignty (governmental control of activities withinthe state)NationA group of people who share common cultural traitsand are unified based on those traits (language, ethnicity,religion, etc.)National boundaries can surpass political (or state)boundaries.
Nation-State vs. Multi-nation StateNation-states are states thatshare the same nationality throughout the entire politicalboundaryJapan, Portugal (w/o Azores)
Multi-nation states are states that have several differentnationalities within the political boundariesUnited States, UnitedKingdom, Russia
IrredentismThe desire to annex (or claim) territory currentlyoccupied or governed by another state as ones own due to current orhistorical similaritiesEthnic or cultural tiesPrevious control ofterritoryHistoric DiasporaNationalismThe ideology led by apopulation to unify based on a unified nationalityCommonly used inrevolutions, irredentist claims, or independence movementsPurposeis usually centered around popular sovereignty and the idea thatthe citizens should be in control
Self Determination Theory (SDT)Edward Deci and RichardRyanPeople will naturally try to control their environment and theactivities that take place within that environmentWhen others takecontrol or determine the fate of a given area, SDT can lead torevolt, coup detat, or irredentism
Enclave and ExclaveExclave a bounded (non-island) piece ofterritory that is part of a particular state but lies separatedfrom it by the territory of another stateEnclave a piece ofterritory that is surrounded by another political unit of which itis not a part
Multi-state (International Level)The use of political boundariesto define international organizations or multi-stateorganizationsSoviet UnionEuropean UnionUnited NationsTheseorganizations share one or more common:Political interestsMilitaryinterests (NATO)Economic interestsHuman interestsCulturalinterests
Colonialism vs. NeocolonialismColonialism sovereign state takescontrol over an uninhabited or uncontrolled parcel of land andclaims it as their own Imperialism sovereign state takes controlover another sovereign state or group of people to imposepolitical, cultural, and economic values on the people (Africa,Southeast Asia, United States)Neocolonialism current dependence offormer colonies on the previous colonizer (sub-Saharan Africa).Also based on globalization and capitalist claims to resourcesaround the world
Cultural DeterminismA groups culture can overcome anyenvironmental obstacles if they are determined to do so.If theobstacle is too large, the group will move on, or continue toovercome their physical environment.Examples?StonehengePyramids inEgypt
PossibilismThis theory challenges environmental determinism andplaces limits on cultural determinismPossibilism is the belief thatwhile people may face challenges regarding physical environment,choices are always present as to how one can deal with eachproblemHowever, possibilists still retain the notion that humanscant control all aspects of their environment
Cultural HearthsThe center or starting point of a culturaltraitRegions can be defined by hearthsExamples?Vatican CityBirth ofBlues (Memphis, Tennessee)
Cultural DiffusionRelocation diffusionHierarchicaldiffusionContagious diffusionStimulus diffusionExpansiondiffusion
AcculturationThe spread of a cultural complex or a culturaltrait from one location to anotherThe process of another cultureembracing or adding that cultural trait to their culturalcomplexAssimilationA culture is completely dominated by anothercultureForced migrationImperialization
Development ModelsRostows Stages of DevelopmentalGrowthTraditionalTransitional (pre-conditional takeoff)TakeoffDriveto maturityMass consumption
Core-Periphery ModelFriedmann (1966)World can be dividedinto:Core: industrialized cities and areas around the world thatare hubs for social and economic activityTransitional: developingareas that strive to reach core status, but can be left out by thepower of the corePeriphery: locations and countries that are at themercy of core countries and often support the economic success ofthese areasMost are trying to get to transitional, but are forcedto remain periphery
Wallersteins World Systems TheoryThe redistribution of resources(natural or human) from periphery to transitional and coreareasWorld Systems theories can help explain slow development,migratory patterns, economic advantages, etc.
Weber Least Cost TheroyIndustries will naturally locatethemselves in places where they can have the least cost ofproduction/manufacturingDistance to marketLabor costsAccess toresourcesTransportationBased on this theory, some parts of theworld are likely to industrialize much more rapidly than othersSomeareas are likely to never industrialize
Hotellings ModelLocational Interdependence TheoryAgglomerationsgroupings of specific industries in certain areas due tospecificity, resources needed, and labor forceSilicon ValleyRustbeltCoal miningHotelling states that companies will naturally formagglomerations and seek locations close to their competitors (thinkBest Buy and Circuit City)People will go to one or the other andthis could maximize their market shareCompete by service andproduct, NOT PRICE
Central Place TheoryThe central place theory, originally coinedby Walter Christaller, proposes that all settlements will belocated near central placesRivers, government buildings, physicalfeatures, or places of interestThe people that utilize services inthis place are called the market
HinterlandThe areas that surround urban areas and that supporturban markets/activitiesFarmland, smaller rural manufacturing,etc.Originally meant to define areas surrounding ports orriversForeland = river banks and ports for shippingHinterland areasused to make products for shipping
Title: Suburban development patterns in the United Kingdom andthe United States.
Caption: The United States has much more sprawl than the UnitedKingdom. In the United Kingdom, new housing is more likely to beconcentrated in new towns or planned extensions of existing smalltowns, whereas in the United States growth occurs in discontinuousdevelopments.
AP Human Geography Theories and Models Review. Demographic Transition Model Stage One – High CBR High CDR Stage One – High CBR High CDR Stage Two – High - [PPT Powerpoint] (2022)
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