ap human geography Latin America Unit notes and spiral notes - Flashcards | StudyHippo.com (2022)

ap human geography Latin America Unit notes and spiral notes - Flashcards | StudyHippo.com (1) Sabrina Peterson

7 July 2022

question

Middle America

answer

Land between U.S and South America along with the islands of the Caribbean

question

Why do Geographers tend to separate Middle and South America?

answer

1. Iberian heritage and catholic religion apply more strongly to south america. 2. More colonial powers left their inprint in middle america 3. Middle america has large populations of people with african, asian, and european ancestries. 4. Middle america is more culturally diverse 5. Carribean has a variety of political structures.

question

Middle America vs Central America

answer

MA is a sub realm consisting of 4 regions. Central America is one of those 4 regions.

question

4 Regions of Middle America

answer

Mexico, Central America, Greater Antilles, and the Lesser Andtilles

question

States of Central America

answer

Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama

question

Greater Antilles

answer

The larger islands of the Caribbean. Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Jamaica

question

Lesser Antilles

answer

The smaller islands of the Carribbean, Dominica

question

Climates of Middle America

answer

A,B, and C

question

Amerindian

answer

Pure, indigenous natives of Middle America

question

Mestizo

answer

European and Amerindian

question

Mestizo/African

answer

African and Mestizo

question

African

answer

WHAT DO YOU THINK

question

Mulatto

answer

African and European

question

Ecumene of Middle America

answer

Mexico City

question

Sierra Madre

answer

Mountain chain that goes through Central America (WHICH IS A REGION) to South America

question

Ring of Fire

answer

Volcanic mountains that encircle the Pacific Ocean, Middle and South America is part of it

question

Altitudinal Zonation

answer

Zonations of climates based on elevation

question

IMPORTANT

answer

3.5 degree F drop in temperature occurs every 100 ft

question

Tierra Caliente

answer

Seal level-2,500 ft. Humid tropical lowlands on the coastal plains. Tropical rain forests and agriculture: Bananas and sugar

question

Tierra Templada (Temperate)

answer

2,500-6,000 ft. Most populated area of Latin America due to mild-cool temperatures. Coffee, Corn, Wheat.

question

Tierra Fria

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answer

6,000-12,000. Highest zone found in Middle America. Barley, wheat, potatoes, corn. Incas. Up to the treeline.

question

Tierra Helada

answer

12,000-15,000 ft. Above tree line. Cold, Barren, has grasses for sheep grazing

question

Tierra Nevada

answer

15,000 ft+. Permanent snow and ice.

question

John Augelli

answer

Identified a EURO-AMERINDIAN Mainland and a EURO-AFRICAN Rimland in Middle America

question

Rimland Info

answer

Various European colonies, Lowlands=Tierra Caliente, mulatto population, Plantation economy/agriculture

question

Plantation

answer

Norther European institution, foreign ownership, commercial agriculture, African slave labor, seasonal labor, single crop (cash), efficient like a factory.

question

Mainland Info

answer

Spanish colonies, Highlands, Mestizos, Isolated

question

Hacienda Economy

answer

Spanish institution, larger personal estates, self-sufficient agriculture, share cropping by Amerindians/landless peasants, many crops and animals, inefficient. Currently: U.S companies

question

Ejidos

answer

Mexican farms that were communally owned and tended by the inhabitants of a village or an individual or cooperative basis. Currently: Economic and political liability, land reform through ejidos, more specialization.

question

Acculturation

answer

Adoption of cultural traits as a result of being influenced by another culture.

question

Transculturation

answer

Expansion of cultural traits through diffusion, adoption, etc. This along with acculturation explain the complex cultures of Middle America.

question

Mulattos dominate...

answer

Caribbean island and coast

question

Mestizos dominate...

answer

Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua

question

Europeans dominate...

answer

Southern part of Central America

question

Chiapas,Mexico Situation

answer

The indigenous people of Chiapas, Mexico once had fertile soil to produce crops, but were relocated after the Spanish Conquest to the highlands, where soil was not fit for agriculture. They were left extremely poor in the considered worthless highland area, until in 1974, Mexico discovered oil and energy sources in their homes, leaving the people nowhere to go. Uprising and rebellion began on Jan 1, 1994, the first day the NAFTA would be in affect by the Zapatista National Liberation Army. Chiapas will be balkanized, despite how much wealth it has?

question

Five Nations of Mexico

answer

Metromex, Mexamerica, South Mexico, Club Mex, New Spain

question

Metromex

answer

Mexico City, federal district, surrounding state of Mexico (Circle Dot on map). More than a quarter of Mexico's 100 million people live in this area. Mexico City is at 7000 ft above sea level, giving conditions that along with the city's heavy industrial activity, produced some of the world's worst pollution.

question

Mexamerica

answer

Northern half of Mexico and extends into the U.S to have Los Angeles, Albuquerque, and San Antonio. Major Mexican cities include Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Monterrey, and Nuevo Laredo. Maquiladoras here.

question

New Spain

answer

Traditional Mexico due to once being the hearth of Mesoamerica. Breadbasket due to lots of rainfall, overpopulated.

question

South Mexico

answer

Poor, agricultural, Amerindian. Chiapas.

question

Club Mex

answer

Small dots on map. Resort enclaves. TOURISM

question

In Latin America...

answer

17% of of landholders own 90% of arable land.

question

Root cause of conflict in this realm

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answer

Unequal distribution of land-hacienda system

question

Guatemala issues

answer

Due to distribution of land. 1952, Jacobo Arbenz accidentally expropriated land from the United Fruit Company through a agrarian reform law. A coup detat followed and Arbenz later resigned to be later replaced by a militarized state that reversed the land reform from Arbenz, leaving land distribution worse off than before. Led to Guerrilla movements, which formed the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity.

question

Mexico

answer

Dominates the realm with 70% of land, 50% of realm's population 2/3 of the realm's total economic activity.

question

Mexican Physical Barriers

answer

Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental, Sierra Madre del sur, Plateau of Mexico, Valley of Mexico

question

Mexican Climate

answer

Dry, 12% of land receives adequate rain fall, more tropical in south and east.

question

Mexico's ethnic group population

answer

60% Mestizo, 30% Amerindian, 8% European

question

Mexico historical geography facts

answer

Mesoamerican cultural hearth. Aztecs Spanish colony Hacienda system of land tenure 1900: more than 8,000 haciendas covered 40% of all land 96% of all rural families were landless, working on haciendas independence from Spain in 1810 Mexican Revolution 1910-1917 Emiliano Zapata Since 1917 about 50% of farmland redistributed as ejidos

question

Central America Physical Geography

answer

Small area and populations, highland spine. fertile volcanic areas, two gaps in mountain spine, coastal lowlands wider in the east- hot, wet, leached soils, population more dense in west or the tierra templada

question

Central America Cultural Geography

answer

regional differences, mestizo majority

question

Central America Economic Geography

answer

Rapid population growth: 1950: 9.3 million, 1994: 32.4 million, 2020: 65 million, unequal land tenure-hacienda system

question

Central America Historical Geography

answer

All Spanish except Belize, Panama part of colonial Columbia

question

El nino/ La nina

answer

Both states of weather. El nino= warm ocean currents bring moisture, wet winter in the U.S, more hurricane activity in Atlantic. La nina= cold ocean currents, bring NO moisture--> dry winters (no snow), more hurricane activity in Pacific.

question

Middle America

answer

Land between U.S and South America along with the islands of the Caribbean

question

Why do Geographers tend to separate Middle and South America?

answer

1. Iberian heritage and catholic religion apply more strongly to south america. 2. More colonial powers left their inprint in middle america 3. Middle america has large populations of people with african, asian, and european ancestries. 4. Middle america is more culturally diverse 5. Carribean has a variety of political structures.

question

Middle America vs Central America

answer

MA is a sub realm consisting of 4 regions. Central America is one of those 4 regions.

question

4 Regions of Middle America

answer

Mexico, Central America, Greater Antilles, and the Lesser Andtilles

question

States of Central America

answer

Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama

question

Greater Antilles

answer

The larger islands of the Caribbean. Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Jamaica

question

Lesser Antilles

answer

The smaller islands of the Carribbean, Dominica

question

Climates of Middle America

answer

A,B, and C

question

Amerindian

answer

Pure, indigenous natives of Middle America

question

Mestizo

answer

European and Amerindian

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question

Mestizo/African

answer

African and Mestizo

question

African

answer

WHAT DO YOU THINK

question

Mulatto

answer

African and European

question

Ecumene of Middle America

answer

Mexico City

question

Sierra Madre

answer

Mountain chain that goes through Central America (WHICH IS A REGION) to South America

question

Ring of Fire

answer

Volcanic mountains that encircle the Pacific Ocean, Middle and South America is part of it

question

Altitudinal Zonation

answer

Zonations of climates based on elevation

question

IMPORTANT

answer

3.5 degree F drop in temperature occurs every 100 ft

question

Tierra Caliente

answer

Seal level-2,500 ft. Humid tropical lowlands on the coastal plains. Tropical rain forests and agriculture: Bananas and sugar

question

Tierra Templada (Temperate)

answer

2,500-6,000 ft. Most populated area of Latin America due to mild-cool temperatures. Coffee, Corn, Wheat.

question

Tierra Fria

answer

6,000-12,000. Highest zone found in Middle America. Barley, wheat, potatoes, corn. Incas. Up to the treeline.

question

Tierra Helada

answer

12,000-15,000 ft. Above tree line. Cold, Barren, has grasses for sheep grazing

question

Tierra Nevada

answer

15,000 ft+. Permanent snow and ice.

question

John Augelli

answer

Identified a EURO-AMERINDIAN Mainland and a EURO-AFRICAN Rimland in Middle America

question

Rimland Info

answer

Various European colonies, Lowlands=Tierra Caliente, mulatto population, Plantation economy/agriculture

question

Plantation

answer

Norther European institution, foreign ownership, commercial agriculture, African slave labor, seasonal labor, single crop (cash), efficient like a factory.

question

Mainland Info

answer

Spanish colonies, Highlands, Mestizos, Isolated

question

Hacienda Economy

answer

Spanish institution, larger personal estates, self-sufficient agriculture, share cropping by Amerindians/landless peasants, many crops and animals, inefficient. Currently: U.S companies

question

Ejidos

answer

Mexican farms that were communally owned and tended by the inhabitants of a village or an individual or cooperative basis. Currently: Economic and political liability, land reform through ejidos, more specialization.

question

Acculturation

answer

Adoption of cultural traits as a result of being influenced by another culture.

question

Transculturation

answer

Expansion of cultural traits through diffusion, adoption, etc. This along with acculturation explain the complex cultures of Middle America.

question

Mulattos dominate...

answer

Caribbean island and coast

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question

Mestizos dominate...

answer

Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua

question

Europeans dominate...

answer

Southern part of Central America

question

Chiapas,Mexico Situation

answer

The indigenous people of Chiapas, Mexico once had fertile soil to produce crops, but were relocated after the Spanish Conquest to the highlands, where soil was not fit for agriculture. They were left extremely poor in the considered worthless highland area, until in 1974, Mexico discovered oil and energy sources in their homes, leaving the people nowhere to go. Uprising and rebellion began on Jan 1, 1994, the first day the NAFTA would be in affect by the Zapatista National Liberation Army. Chiapas will be balkanized, despite how much wealth it has?

question

Five Nations of Mexico

answer

Metromex, Mexamerica, South Mexico, Club Mex, New Spain

question

Metromex

answer

Mexico City, federal district, surrounding state of Mexico (Circle Dot on map). More than a quarter of Mexico's 100 million people live in this area. Mexico City is at 7000 ft above sea level, giving conditions that along with the city's heavy industrial activity, produced some of the world's worst pollution.

question

Mexamerica

answer

Northern half of Mexico and extends into the U.S to have Los Angeles, Albuquerque, and San Antonio. Major Mexican cities include Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Monterrey, and Nuevo Laredo. Maquiladoras here.

question

New Spain

answer

Traditional Mexico due to once being the hearth of Mesoamerica. Breadbasket due to lots of rainfall, overpopulated.

question

South Mexico

answer

Poor, agricultural, Amerindian. Chiapas.

question

Club Mex

answer

Small dots on map. Resort enclaves. TOURISM

question

In Latin America...

answer

17% of of landholders own 90% of arable land.

question

Root cause of conflict in this realm

answer

Unequal distribution of land-hacienda system

question

Guatemala issues

answer

Due to distribution of land. 1952, Jacobo Arbenz accidentally expropriated land from the United Fruit Company through a agrarian reform law. A coup detat followed and Arbenz later resigned to be later replaced by a militarized state that reversed the land reform from Arbenz, leaving land distribution worse off than before. Led to Guerrilla movements, which formed the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity.

question

Mexico

answer

Dominates the realm with 70% of land, 50% of realm's population 2/3 of the realm's total economic activity.

question

Mexican Physical Barriers

answer

Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental, Sierra Madre del sur, Plateau of Mexico, Valley of Mexico

question

Mexican Climate

answer

Dry, 12% of land receives adequate rain fall, more tropical in south and east.

question

Mexico's ethnic group population

answer

60% Mestizo, 30% Amerindian, 8% European

question

Mexico historical geography facts

answer

Mesoamerican cultural hearth. Aztecs Spanish colony Hacienda system of land tenure 1900: more than 8,000 haciendas covered 40% of all land 96% of all rural families were landless, working on haciendas independence from Spain in 1810 Mexican Revolution 1910-1917 Emiliano Zapata Since 1917 about 50% of farmland redistributed as ejidos

question

Central America Physical Geography

answer

Small area and populations, highland spine. fertile volcanic areas, two gaps in mountain spine, coastal lowlands wider in the east- hot, wet, leached soils, population more dense in west or the tierra templada

question

Central America Cultural Geography

answer

regional differences, mestizo majority

question

Central America Economic Geography

answer

Rapid population growth: 1950: 9.3 million, 1994: 32.4 million, 2020: 65 million, unequal land tenure-hacienda system

question

Central America Historical Geography

answer

All Spanish except Belize, Panama part of colonial Columbia

question

El nino/ La nina

answer

Both states of weather. El nino= warm ocean currents bring moisture, wet winter in the U.S, more hurricane activity in Atlantic. La nina= cold ocean currents, bring NO moisture--> dry winters (no snow), more hurricane activity in Pacific.

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FAQs

What are 5 significant physical features in Latin America? ›

Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Amazon River, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Pacific Ocean, Panama Canal, Andes Mountains, Sierra Madre Mountains, and Atacama Desert.

What are the 3 regions of Latin America? ›

Latin America is divided into 3 Regions: Mexico and Central America. The Caribbean. South America.

What unifies Latin America? ›

Shared cultural traditions, political experiences, and social expectations provide a rough network that unifies the peoples of Latin America into a broad cultural region.

What are the three types of movement in AP Human Geography? ›

"Mobility" is the ability of something or someone to move from one place or region to another. "Migration" refers specifically to groups of people or animals moving from one region or country to another. "Travel" is voluntary movement from one region to another.

What are the 4 regions of Latin America? ›

The four Latin American regions are Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean.

What is the largest country in Latin America? ›

Based on land area, Brazil is the largest country in Latin America by far, with a total area of over 8.5 million square kilometers. Argentina follows with almost 2.8 million square kilometers.

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