12 Types of Migration (Human Geography Notes) (2022) (2023)

12 Types of Migration (Human Geography Notes) (2022) (1)

Migration is the process of moving from one place to another either permanently or temporarily. In human geography, there are multiple ways of classifying migration, including voluntary or involuntary and internal vs external.

Some examples of types of migration include chain, forced, voluntary, cyclical, economic, and step.

By studying migration patterns, we can better predict population growth and plan for it, as well as understand how best to provide for the people who move to and from regions of the world, many of whom are often fleeing persecution or danger.

Contents show

Types of Migration

1. Chain Migration

Chain migration is a process whereby people migrate to a new location in groups, often following family or friends who have already made the move.

There are a few reasons why people may choose to engage in chain migration. One reason is that it can be cheaper than migrating alone. When people migrate in groups, they can often pool resources and share costs, making the overall journey more affordable.

Additionally, chain migration can provide social and emotional support during what can be a difficult and stressful process. Thus, migrants often move to the same neighborhoods of other expatriates, creating clusters such as a ‘Little Italy’ or ‘Chinatown’ within a city.

A real-life example of chain migration is the Irish diaspora. Over the centuries, many Irish people have left their homeland to seek better economic opportunities and social conditions abroad. These migrants often settled in countries with significant Irish communities already in place, such as the United States, Canada, and Australia. This allowed them to benefit from the support of these existing communities as they adjusted to their new life.

2. Cyclical Migration

Cyclical migration is a type of migration pattern in which people move back and forth between two or more destinations over a period of time. This type of migration can be motivated by a variety of factors, including economic opportunities, family ties, and cultural attachments.

Cyclical migration that occurs for economic reasons often takes place during seasons. People will migrate during harvest seasons to get work, then return to their homeland once the harvest is over. A real-life example of cyclical migration for economic reasons is the annual migration of sugarcane workers in Brazil. Every year, millions of people travel from all over the country to work in the sugarcane fields during the harvest season. Once the harvest is over, they return to their homes.

This type of migration can also be motivated by family ties and cultural attachments. For example, many people from Mexico migrate to the United States for work. But they often return to Mexico for important holidays and family events, such as weddings and funerals. This type of cyclical migration is often called circular migration.

(Video) Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences - Introduction | Class 12 Geography (2022-23)

Thirdly, cyclical migration can occur due to environmental factors. This is often the case with nomadic tribes who will return yearly to a certain place to hunt, catch fish, or seek shelter. A real-life example of this is the annual migration of the Mursi people in Ethiopia. Every year, the Mursi migrate to the Omo River Valley to graze their cattle.

3. Economic Migration

Economic migration is the movement of people from one place to another in order to find work or improve their standard of living.

People engage in economic migration for many reasons, including poverty in their homeland, lack of employment opportunities, and natural disasters that have devastated their home economies.

Economic migrants often have difficulty finding work in their new countries and may face discrimination and exploitation. Furthermore, it’s often looked less kindly upon than other forms of migration because economic migrants are often unfairly seen as taking the jobs of local populations.

A real-life example of economic migration is the movement of people from the economically-depressed country of Venezuela to neighboring Colombia in search of work during the 2020 economic crash.

Another real-life example is the Syrian refugee crisis. In 2015, over 4 million Syrians fled their homes due to the Syrian Civil War. The majority of these refugees have settled in Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan.

4. Environmental Migration

Environmental migration is the movement of people from one place to another due to environmental factors such as climate change, natural disasters, and pollution.

Environmental migrants often face many challenges, including a lack of legal recognition, difficulty finding work, and discrimination.

A real-life example of environmental migration is the movement of people from the Pacific island nation of Kiribati to New Zealand due to rising sea levels and severe flooding.

Environmental migration due to climate change is predicted to be one of the most significant causes of forced migration in the 21st Century. Rising tides alone are expected to engulf many pacific islands and low-lying areas of the world such as Vietnam, causing an estimated 150 million forced displacements in the next 80 years.

5. External Migration

External migration is simply any movement of people from one country to another. It is the opposite of internal migration, which is migration within a territory.

Many of the other types of migration on this list are examples of external migration, as this is an umbrella term for any intra-territorial migration.

External migration can be motivated by a variety of factors, including economic opportunities, family ties, and cultural attachments.

6. Forced Migration

Forced migration is when people are displaced against their will, often due to conflict or natural disaster. This type of migrant is often treated with most sympathy by host nations because their migration was not of their choosing.

(Video) How Migration Impacts Society [AP Human Geography Unit 2 Topic 12]

International rules state that nations must accept people who are fleeing their homeland due to conflict or persecution, but this doesn’t always happen in practice.

Forced migrants may be displaced within their own countries (internally displaced persons) or across international borders (refugees and asylum seekers). According to the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR), there are over 82 million forcibly displaced people worldwide.

The Syrian refugee crisis is a real-life example of forced migration. In 2015, over 4 million Syrians fled their homes due to the Syrian Civil War. The majority of these refugees have settled in Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan.

Similarly, in 2022, over 4 million refugees fled Ukraine due to Putin’s war of aggression against the sovereign democracy. Most fled to neighboring Poland.

Read More: 35 Forced Migration Examples, Causes and Effects

7. Internal Migration

Internal migration is the movement of people within a country. As with external migration (which is movement across territorial borders), many other types of migration can fit under this umbrella term.

Some people may internally migrate for economic reasons, in order to find better opportunities or to escape poverty. Others may migrate for political reasons, in order to flee persecution or to find greater freedoms.

Still others may migrate for social reasons, in order to be closer to family or friends, or to find a community with similar cultural values.

Similarly, some people may migrate for environmental reasons, in order to escape natural disasters or to find a more hospitable climate.

One example of internal migration is urbanization, which is or the movement of people from rural areas to urban areas in search of better economic opportunities in the cities.

8. Interregional Migration

Interregional migration is a sub-category of internal migration. It describes the movement of people from one region of a country to another.

This may take place due to economic factors (e.g. one state is more prosperous than another), to follow family (chain migration), or for lifestyle factors.

As most nations have internal freedom of movement, this type of migration is relatively easy.

A famous example of interregional migration is the dust bowl migration in the United States during the great depression. The largest interregional migration in US history, the dust bowl exodus took place due to a range of economic and environmental factors. Bank foreclosures, expansion of corporate agriculture at the expense of family farms, and drought and duststorms contributed to the exodus.

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In all, 2.5 million people fled the dust bowl. Most ended up in California where they were not met with a warm welcome by locals who felt they would take their jobs.

9. Intraregional Migration

Intraregional migration is the other sub-category of internal migration. It describes short-distance migrations within the same region of a country.

As with other types of migration, this can happen for a variety of reasons, including due to economic pressures, for quality of life, or to be closer to family.

A quintessential example of intraregional migration is the movement of young adults from the suburbs where they grew up into nearby cities to attend university and pursue a career.

When people reach time to settle down, they often move back out to the suburbs where they can afford a comfortable house to raise children in peace while still being able to commute into the city for work.

10. Step Migration

Step migration is a migration journey that occurs in several stages. It was originally conceptualized by Ernst Ravenstein in 1885 as migration of people from rural areas of a country to cities via outer suburbs.

They would first move to the suburbs to begin integration, where it’s cheaper, before taking the final step into urban areas.

Today, though, it’s more often seen as staged external migration. A common example of step migration is someone seeking to move to a desirable country such as the USA, but only being able to find a job in an undesirable area of the country. They agree to work in the less desirable area for a number of years to secure residency before moving on to their preferred area of the country once they have obtained access.

It also commonly occurs in the EU where people enter the EU via nations with lax immigration laws. Once they have become citizens of an EU nation, they can move to any one of the 27 nations within the bloc.

11. Transnational Migration

Transnational migration is the movement of people from one country to another in order to live and work while maintaining strong ties to their homeland.

This type of migration has become increasingly common in recent years as globalization has made it easier for people to move back and forth between countries. Transnational migrants often send money back to support their families or return to visit them regularly.

A common example of transnational migration would be a migrant from Mexico who heads to the United States to work but sends money back to his family in Mexico every month, and visits them once a year.

12. Voluntary Migration

Voluntary migration is defined as the movement of people from one place to another in which they have chosen to make the journey, as opposed to being forced to migrate due to factors such as conflict or natural disaster.

People may choose to migrate for a variety of reasons, including seeking better economic opportunities, fleeing persecution or violence, or reuniting with loved ones. They may even simply migrate due to the love of a different culture of the desire for adventure.

(Video) Class 12 Geography Notes Ch. 2( book no. 2) Migration: Types, Causes and Consequences

A real-life example of voluntary migration is the migration of young people on youth mobility visas that are available in countries like the UK, Australia, and Canada. These visas allow young people to go on medium-term adventures around the world for up to 4 years before returning home.

Conclusion

There are many different types of migration, each with its own set of motivations and challenges. Some types of migration, such as forced migration, can be very difficult and dangerous. Others, like voluntary migration, can be exciting and full of opportunities. Through studying migration, we can better understand how to assist people as they move their lives from one location to another.

Chris Drew (PhD)

Website | + posts

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education.

FAQs

What are the 12 types of migration? ›

internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent. external migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent. emigration: leaving one country to move to another. immigration: moving into a new country.

What are the 10 different types of migration? ›

What are the types of migration?
  • Internal migration: moving within a state, country, or continent.
  • External migration: moving to a different state, country, or continent.
  • Emigration: leaving one place to move to another.
  • Immigration: moving into a new place.
  • Return migration: moving back to where you came from.

What is migration long answer? ›

migration, n.

a. The movement of a person or people from one country, locality, place of residence, etc., to settle in another; an instance of this. Migration is, first and foremost, a normal human activity. Human beings have always moved from 'one country, locality, [and] place of residence to settle in another'.

What are the different types of migrants? ›

This section explores these categories through case studies of real life migrants.
  • Economic Migrants. Economic migration is the movement of people from one country to another to benefit from greater economic opportunities. ...
  • Political Migrants. ...
  • Environmental Migrants. ...
  • Family Reunion.

What is migration definition PDF? ›

Migration. The movement of a person or a group of persons, either across an international border or within a State.

What are the 7 types of migration? ›

There are different types of migration such as counter-urbanization, emigration, immigration, internal migration, international migration and rural-urban migration.

What is migration state Type 10? ›

Internal Migration and External Migration:- Internal migration implies the movement of people in different states and areas within a country from one place to another. On the other hand, external or international migration implies the activity of people from one country to another for permanent settlement.

What are the 10 reasons for migration? ›

Here are the top ten:
  • Escaping hardship, conflict, and persecution. ...
  • Seeking a better life. ...
  • Displacement because of environmental factors. ...
  • Family reunification. ...
  • Employment. ...
  • Studies. ...
  • Following cultures of migration. ...
  • Economic reasons: remittances.

What are the 4 types of internal migration? ›

This approach allows us to assess four types of internal migration: rural-rural, rural-urban, urban-rural and urban-urban.

Who started migration? ›

First migrants

The earliest migrants were ancient humans who originated on the African continent. Their spread to Eurasia and elsewhere remains a matter of significant scientific controversy. The earliest fossils of recognizable Homo sapiens were found in Ethiopia and are approximately 200,000 years old.

What are the 5 effects of migration? ›

Migrants eventually induce social, economic, and political problems in receiving countries, including 1) increases in the population, with adverse effects on existing social institutions; 2) increases in demand for goods and services; 3) displacement of nationals from occupations in the countryside and in the cities; 4 ...

What are the 5 causes of migration? ›

Exploring migration causes – why people migrate
  • Push and pull factors. Push factors are the reasons people leave a country. ...
  • Socio-political factors. ...
  • Demographic and economic factors. ...
  • Environmental factors. ...
  • New EU migration pact. ...
  • Read more on migration in Europe.
1 Jul 2020

What is the most common type of migration? ›

Forced migration or displacement is defined as, “The movement of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or ...

What is migration example? ›

For example, salmon start life in rivers and migrate to the sea to feed and grow. After spending up to seven years in the ocean, they migrate back to the rivers they were born in so that they can spawn. Christmas Island red crabs (Gecarcoidea natalis) migrate for similar reasons.

What is migration causes and effects? ›

Employment opportunities are the most common reason due to which people migrate. Except this, lack of opportunities, better education, construction of dams, globalization, natural disaster (flood and drought) and sometimes crop failure forced villagers to migrate to cities.

What are 5 push and pull factors? ›

Examples of push factors include war, political instability, famine, and drought, among others. Examples of pull factors include political stability, lots of jobs, natural resources, better learning institutions, and better climate.

How does migration affect health? ›

Migration could both improve or diminish an individual's health status. Refugees and migrants often face worse health outcomes in countries of transit and destination due to barriers including language and cultural differences, institutional discrimination and restricted use of health services.

Which factor most often causes migration? ›

They are economic factors, demographic factors, socio-cultural factors, political factors and miscellaneous factors. (i) Economic Factors Most of the studies indicate that migration is primarily motivated by economic factors.

What do you mean by migration Class 12? ›

Migration is defined as movement from one country, place or locality to another in search of better opportunities to settle. When people move from one place to another, the place they move from is called the Place of Origin and the place they move to is called the Place of Destination.

What is migration Class 9? ›

Migration is the movement of people across regions and territories. Migration can be internal (within the country) or international (between the countries). Internal migration does not change the size of the population but influences the distribution of population within the nation.

What are the different types of migration Class 9? ›

There are three different types of migration, Immigration and emigration, rural – urban migration. urban – urban migration.

What is temporary migration? ›

Temporary migration is migration to a country that is not intended to be permanent, for a specified and limited period of time, and usually undertaken for a specific purpose.

What is internal migration and its types? ›

Internal migration is the movement of people from one area of a country to another. The three most common types of internal migration are internal displacement, the sunbelt region of the state, and brain drains.

How many types of internal migration are there? ›

This study of internal migration involves several types of migratory moves: 1) rural to urban migration, 2) rural to rural migration, 3) urban to rural migration, 4) urban to urban migration, and 5) interregional migration.

What are 3 positive effects of migration? ›

The expansion of the labour force, the increase of cultural variety, the filling of skill gaps in the labour market, and the boost to the local economy are the major positive effects of migration on host countries.

How migration affects population growth? ›

Similarly, migration will reduce ageing in affluent regions and increase it in poor ones. Most countries and regions experiencing population decrease do so mainly due to natural change (the difference between births and deaths), while regions which gain population do so mainly due to extra- Europe migration.

What is global migration? ›

global migration. noun [ U ] ECONOMICS. a situation in which people go to live in foreign countries, especially in order to find work: Most global migration is from developing countries to developed ones.

What is direct migration? ›

The Skilled Migration Program allows people who have no previous relationship with Australia to migrate to Australia directly from overseas. After living in Australia for four years you can apply for Australian Citizenship without renouncing your previous citizenship.

What is local migration? ›

As noted in the introduction, local migration has been defined as movement within the. Caversham Project study area. Three categories of local (which can also referred to as. 'micro') movement have been identified.

What is an example of external migration? ›

External migration involves leaving one country to live in another. This type of migration is also an age-old phenomenon, but the most dramatic example of it took place in modern times. In the Great Atlantic Migration, many millions of people left Europe for North America.

› pages › Migration-Types-Migrat... ›

International migration. This refers to change of residence over national boundaries. An international migrant is someone who moves to a different country. Inte...

4 Types of migration

http://lrlr.landscapeonline.de › lrlr-2010-2 › articlese4
http://lrlr.landscapeonline.de › lrlr-2010-2 › articlese4
There is also internal migration, most commonly from rural areas to urban centres but also a trend in some places for counter-urbanisation. These will be examin...
The first – and the most common – classification of migration refer to the nature of movement. This would include immigration and emigration. Immigration refers...

What is migration give an example class 12? ›

Complete Answer: - Migration is generally an annual event in which many animals travel to far-off places in search of food and breeding ground when climatic changes take place in their natural habitat. Many birds from Siberia come to India during winter months during the climate change in search of their food.

What is population migration Class 12? ›

Migration is a consequence of the uneven – distribution of opportunities over space. People : tends to move from place of low opportunity and low safety to the place of higher opportunity and ; better safety. Results can be observed in i economic, social, cultural, political and, demographic terms.

What do you mean by migration Class 12? ›

Migration is defined as movement from one country, place or locality to another in search of better opportunities to settle. When people move from one place to another, the place they move from is called the Place of Origin and the place they move to is called the Place of Destination.

What are push factors of migration 12? ›

Why do people migrate in large number from rural to urban areas in India? a) Pull factors: New employment opportunities, better health and education facilities, high standard of living. b) Push factors: Poverty, overburdened agriculture, natural disasters (drought and floods). 12.

What is migration explain the migration of matter into food carrier class 10? ›

Migration is defined as the activity of people across regions and territories. It is a crucial determinant of population shift as it not only alters the size of population but also influences the population texture of urban and rural regions. Migration can be internal and international.

What are the types and factors of migration explain? ›

The important factors which motivate people to move can be classified into five categories. They are economic factors, demographic factors, socio-cultural factors, political factors and miscellaneous factors. (i) Economic Factors Most of the studies indicate that migration is primarily motivated by economic factors.

What is migration and examples? ›

Migration is the movement of either people or animals from one area to another. Look up in the trees, where you might see a Monarch butterfly make a stop on its migration to Mexico. Migration can be used for the journey from one place to another or for the act of movement.

What are the 10 reasons for migration? ›

Here are the top ten:
  • Escaping hardship, conflict, and persecution. ...
  • Seeking a better life. ...
  • Displacement because of environmental factors. ...
  • Family reunification. ...
  • Employment. ...
  • Studies. ...
  • Following cultures of migration. ...
  • Economic reasons: remittances.

What are the causes of migration PDF? ›

Keywords: Causes of Migration, Economic, Political, Demographic, Social, Climatic. The phenomenon of migration is increasingly maintaining its place on the agenda day by day. under compulsory or undesirable conditions.

Do animals migrate? ›

Many animal species migrate, including species of fish, crustaceans, amphibians, reptiles, insects, and mammals. These animals might journey by land, sea, or air to reach their destination, often crossing vast distances and in large numbers. One of the main reasons animals migrate is to find food.

What is the impact of rural urban migration Class 12? ›

Rural urban migration is one of the important factors contributing to the population growth of cities. Age and skill selective out migration from the rural area have adverse effect on the rural demographic structure leading to serious imbalances in age and sex composition.

Why do birds migrate? ›

Birds migrate to move from areas of low or decreasing resources to areas of high or increasing resources. The two primary resources being sought are food and nesting locations.

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