10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (2023)

When it comes to causes of urbanization, the two primary reasons that occur in mind are the natural population increase and rural to urban migration.

Along with these two, there are many other causes of urbanization. In this post, we will dive deep into these causes and understand how they affect all varieties of arrangements, settlements, and adjustments from small villages to towns to cities that have channelized the growth of cities and megacities with 10+ million people.

So, without any further ado, let us, deep-dive, into the world of causes of Urbanization here and now-

Table of Contents

What is Urbanization?

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (1)

In the 1800s, rural areas were more populated and preferred.

Cities and the urban regions incorporated less than 5% of the world population. However, due to revolution and industrialization, people started migrating towards urban areas.

By the year 2000, 47% of the total population started residing in urban areas. It is predicted that by 2030, urban areas would accommodate 65% of the entire human population. Invariably, this would lead to overcrowding and a shortage of resources.

Urbanization is not a problem limited to any particular nation. But usually, it is known to cause hindrances in developing nations. All the countries of the world have been facing this issue for some time now. Urbanization is the process of people moving out from rural areas to cities and urban areas.

There are many reasons for this migration. But the reasons for urbanization vary depending on the nation. The most common ones include- A search for better economic conditions, better education, healthcare, better sanitation, comfortable housing, versatile transportation, and immense business opportunities.

Due to urbanization in developing nations, the enormous slums of unemployed people are getting created.

The creation of slums leads to various other problems, including lack of availability of area for infrastructural development, lack of proper management, etc. Hence, urbanization leads to a marathon of issues in a nation.

In this article, we shall attempt to deal with the concept of urbanization and the various causes behind it. The reasons can be classified as follows:

Causes of Urbanization

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (2)

1. Industrialization

Industrialization is one of the leading causes of urbanization.

(Video) Effects of Urbanisation

The modern society of today is built on an urban lifestyle. People are moving from an agrarian society to non-agricultural jobs, which are industrial and corporate. The reason being that such jobs provide a better income, consistently.

Most people have moved from rural to urban areas in the hope of finding better employment opportunities with growing businesses. Since most people, in the beginning, we’re able to see well-paying jobs outside; this trend was encouraged into the future.

Industrialization leads to large-scale migration of people from rural areas to urban areas. However, the area and the resources available in urban settlement are limited. It creates a dent in urban development.

2. Commercialization

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (3)

Trade has been one of the primary reasons behind urbanization.

The export and import of goods and services is a prosperous business venture. The modern society has a constant need for the distribution and spread of products, services, and other commercial transactions.

It has encouraged people to build many marketing institutions and modern exchange methods. Naturally, this has led to the rapid growth of towns and cities. People hold the belief that commercialization and trading in cities offer much better opportunities than rural areas. The reason being that the standard of living in urban areas is high.

Moreover, the technology requires for useful trade is only available in urban areas. Hence, the migration rate increased. Industrialization and commercialization clubbed together are the two significant reasons for urbanization.

3. Political causes

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (4)

Political instability and disruption lead to a chaotic situation in rural areas.

Under these circumstances, people are forced to leave their homes and migrate to rural settlements. The reason behind migration is to get food, shelter, and clothing.

If a large number of people suddenly migrate to urban areas, it causes the population saturation in cities. It also creates a dent in the limited resources available. Naturally, vast slums are developed on the outskirts of these cities. And slums give rise to a new set of problems.

4. Social Benefits

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (5)

People find much better amenities in cities and towns.

There are better facilities such as the likes of housing, sanitation, education, healthcare, living standards, and recreation. Such things act as an incentive for people to move into urban areas from rural regions.

It has been right in so far that people have found better living conditions in cities and towns. More and more people today are encouraged to make a move from backward regions to more developed ones.

5. Social causes

It is observed that young people living in rural areas have the desire to get the taste of urban life. They have the urge to lead a life of richness and indulge in youthful activities.

(Video) Urbanization || English notes || Definition || causes || Impact || RURAL DEVELOPMENT

Hence, they migrate to urban areas. Again, due to lack of employment, such people either experience immense poverty or resort to illicit activities. Naturally, the crime rate in urban areas increases and causes a hindrance in urban development.

6. Degradation of the environment

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (6)

Industrialization leads to rampant deforestation, mining activity, and expansion of industries. Naturally, the land of farming families is destroyed.

In most cases, these families aren’t compensated for the loss of property. Sometimes, the mining companies provide small funds to the families to help those migrated to urban areas. But there is no guarantee of getting employed in cities.

Under such circumstances, the farming families are forced to settle in cities and towns. Due to a lack of work, these families suffer from poverty. Hence, degradation of the environment not only destroys the rural environment but also encourages poverty in the country.

7. Employment Opportunities

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (7)

There are several employment opportunities in urban areas. These are a compelling factor for rural folks who want better means of livelihood for their sustenance.

People often migrate into cities and metropolitan regions while looking for jobs that pay well. It is particularly true of developmental areas such as education, public health, transport, sport, business, and recreation.

These jobs pay well and have several added benefits. More of such jobs are continuously being generated in cities and urging a move from rural to an urban lifestyle.

8. Modernization and Changed Lifestyle

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (8)

Urban areas have several modern technologies and facilities to offer.

Cities have become highly tech-savvy with sophisticated communication, medical facilities, infrastructure, enlightenment, dressing code, social amenities, and liberalization. People entertain the idea that they shall have much better lives in urban places.

9. Rural-Urban Transformation | Causes of Urbanization

Most localities are taking up an urban form of life. Minerals are discovered, and natural resources are exploited for commercial reasons.

This turns rural areas into growing cities. An increase in productivity causes economic growth and creates employment opportunities. Wherever these two exist, there is a natural inflow of people.

10. Education

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (9)

Better education facilities, opportunities to study in reputed universities and colleges and better quality of education attract young people towards urban settlements.

Their mindset suggests that acquiring a better quality of education will increase their employability. It will ensure a safe and secure future. Hence, the need for education is one of the various reasons for increased urbanization.

(Video) Urbanization and the future of cities - Vance Kite

Positive effects of Urbanization

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (10)

Every coin has two sides. Hence, it doesn’t come as a surprise that urbanization also has a specific positive impact on the development of the nation. Let us take a look at some of these effects-

1. Improved standards of living

Urbanizations lead to the creation of employment, better job opportunities, availability of technological facilities, improvement in infrastructural facilities, etc.

The quality of education also improves, and people are provided with better medical facilities and healthcare requirements. There are better communication and transportation facilities in urban areas. Naturally, the living standards of the population improve.

They become financially stable enough to avail all these facilities with better quality. It leads to an increase in the Human Development Index or the HDI of the urban settlement.

2. Improved market potential

City life generates the market potential of the population. Their shopping potential increases manifold. It leads to the development of malls and shopping complexes.

These malls cater to various needs, including entertainment, food, recreation, cultural activities, and many more. But most of these shopping complexes are owned by national and international companies. These significantly interfere in the growth of small independent businesses.

3. Availability of better services

Due to advancements in the field of technology in urban areas, they can provide a variety of services to the people. These services are not available in rural areas.

Proper medical care, education, transportation, etc. are more developed in urban areas. Even recreational facilities are more advanced in urban settlements.

Negative Effects of Urbanization

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (11)

1. Housing Problems

An increase in the number of people within any area results in the problem of accommodation. The population has also significantly increased in the last few years.

Because of this population pressure, urban areas face a scarcity of housing facilities.

It occurs because the expansion of housing and public utilities has been insufficient. Building material is also expensive, which cannot be afforded by everybody.

2. Overcrowding

Since there is a lack of housing facilities, many people are forced to share small living spaces.

Congestion has significantly increased with the influx of rural population into urban areas. It increases pressure on land and resources, creating a scarcity of basic amenities.

3. Unemployment

Although the primary reason for urbanization was ample job opportunities, the situation has dramatically reversed now.

Since several people flock to cities in search of jobs, employing every one of them becomes difficult. Moreover, jobs have become highly specialized- not everyone can meet all the job requirements of a profile.

(Video) Urbanisation Positive & Negative Impacts

4. Water Scarcity

Where the population has increased, resources have remained minimal.

One major crisis that big cities face today is water scarcity. Dry summer seasons are even worse where water is available for only some hours during the day.

5. Sanitation Problems

There are too many people inhabiting a small region in urban cities. This results in inadequate sewage facilities.

Municipalities and local governments have found it particularly hard to take care of all the waste generated in a city. Most of this is dumped into water bodies, which results in pollution and health hazards.

6. A rise in the crime rate

Due to the increase in migration towards urban areas, cities experience various problems due to lack of resources, poverty, unemployment, overcrowding, and many more.

These economic problems give rise to many social issues. These issues include vandalism, increase in crime rate, drug abuse, etc. An economic backdrop in the city leads to many social crimes like kidnapping, rape, murder, theft, robbery, hijacking, etc.

Such an open crime rate disturbs the peace and stability of cities and towns. The increase in the price of urbanization will only cause a significant boost in the crime rate.

Solutions for the Issues of Urbanization

10 Causes of Urbanization - Positive And Negative Effects of Urbanization (12)

  • The government needs to take more initiative in managing urban lifestyle. There should be better urban planning, financing, and institutional reforms
  • Governmental transfers and land utilization should be considered in line with a large number of workers migrating into cities.
  • There should be laws for sustainable and environmentally friendly. Smarter growth techniques need to develop for conserving natural ecosystems.
  • Tourism promotion, as well as sustainable use of natural resources, should be made the founding base for creating more job opportunities.
  • Stakeholders in urban regions can provide counseling and campaigns for active health clinics as well as family planning. It is needed to keep the population growth in check.
  • Social management, along with public governance, needs to be improved. More job opportunities need to be created for people who remain unemployed.

Final Thoughts

Urbanization has increased dramatically in the past few decades.

The issue of urbanization affects developing nations more than in developed countries.

There are many reasons responsible for the increase in mind. These reasons include commercialization, industrialization, political instability in rural areas, better facilities in urban areas, etc.

People also migrate to cities for acquiring education, availing better medical facilities, and seeking better employment opportunities. There has been a rapid decrease in the rural population as more and more people shift to urban regions and townships. Although initially, this was a sign of growth and development, things are no longer the same.

Urbanisation has certain essential benefits.

But it also comes with a lot of negatives and downsides. If not managed properly, these disadvantages will prove to be detrimental to the cities and the country as a whole.

Governments and the general public need to manage and address this issue for sustainable growth and development of the planet.

Now, we hope you would have understood different causes of urbanization and how they have been affecting the societies around the world. Did we miss any of the reasons that you consider significant for the urbanisation in your community? Share your thoughts with us in the comments.

(Video) Effects of Urbanization

FAQs

What are the positive and negative effects of urbanization? ›

Development of Slums. Water and Sanitation Problems. Poor Health and Spread of Diseases.
...
Positive Effects of Urbanization:
  • Creation of employment opportunities.
  • Technological and infrastructural advancements.
  • Improved transportation and communication.
  • Quality educational and medical facilities.
  • Improved standards of living.

What are 5 positive effects of urbanization? ›

Accessibility to the Internet, better healthcare, education, recreational activities, social services, and more all improve livability. Additionally, modern cities have the potential to better plan their city for sustainability and boost their economy.

What are 5 negative effects of urbanization? ›

Some of the major health problems resulting from urbanization include poor nutrition, pollution-related health conditions and communicable diseases, poor sanitation and housing conditions, and related health conditions.

What are the causes and effects of urbanization? ›

Urbanisation results from a natural increase in the population and rural to urban migration. People migrate to towns and cities in hope of gaining a better standard of living. They are influenced by pull factors that attract them to urban life, and push factors that make them dissatisfied with rural living.

What were the positive effects of urbanization? ›

Finally, the higher standard of living associated with urbanization provides people with better food, education, housing, and health care. Urban growth generates revenues that fund infrastructure projects, reducing congestion and improving public health.

Which of these is not a positive effect of urbanization? ›

Exploitation of resources

Was this answer helpful?

What are the positive effects of industrialization? ›

The Industrial Revolution had many positive effects. Among those was an increase in wealth, the production of goods, and the standard of living. People had access to healthier diets, better housing, and cheaper goods. In addition, education increased during the Industrial Revolution.

What good is urbanization? ›

When properly planned and managed, urbanization can reduce poverty and inequality by improving employment opportunities and quality of life, including through better education and health.

What do you mean by urbanisation Class 10? ›

Answer: The process by which huge numbers of people are permanently concentrated in relatively limited regions, establishing cities, is known as urbanisation. Urban areas usually refer to cities, suburbs and towns.

Is urbanisation good or bad? ›

Urbanization is by no means bad per se. It brings important benefits for economic, cultural and societal development. Well managed cities are both efficient and effective, enabling economies of scale and network effects while reducing the impact on climate of transportation.

What is urbanization and its effect? ›

Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the corresponding decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which societies adapt to this change.

What are the causes and effects of urbanization in India? ›

Causes of urbanization in India

Expansion in government services, as a result of the Second World War. Migration of people during the partition of India. The Industrial Revolution. Eleventh five-year plan that aimed at urbanisation for the economic development of India.

What are the effects of urbanization in society? ›

In addition, urbanization has many adverse effects on the structure of society as gigantic concentrations of people compete for limited resources. Rapid housing construction leads to overcrowding and slums, which experience major problems such as poverty, poor sanitation, unemployment and high crime rates.

What are three effects of urbanization? ›

Poor air and water quality, insufficient water availability, waste-disposal problems, and high energy consumption are exacerbated by the increasing population density and demands of urban environments.

What are the three main causes of urbanisation? ›

Solution. Urbanization is driven by three factors: natural population growth, rural to urban migration, and the reclassification of rural areas into urban areas.

What are 3 effects of urbanization on the environment? ›

Urbanization often results in deforestation, habitat loss, and the extraction of freshwater from the environment, which can decrease biodiversity and alter species ranges and interactions.

What are urbanization and mention two causes of urbanization class 12? ›

1. Urbanisation is an increase in the number of people living in towns and cities. 2. Urbanisation occurs mainly because people move from rural areas to urban areas and it results in growth in the size of the urban population and the extent of urban areas.

What are the causes of urban growth? ›

Various Causes of Urban Growth
  • The natural increase in population. ...
  • Migration. ...
  • Industrialization. ...
  • Commercialization. ...
  • Advancement of transport and communication. ...
  • Availability of educational and recreational facilities. ...
  • Urban planning policies. ...
  • Topographical factors.

What are the three main causes of urbanisation in Indonesia? ›

The level of urbanization that occurred in Indonesia at this time is remarkable that causes the growth of cities very rapidly. The growth of cities is mainly due to various reasons such as the capitalization process, regional enlargement/reclassification, as well as migration from rural to urban.

What are 2 negatives of living in an urban area? ›

Disadvantages
  • Busy towns or cities can feel crowded and may mean you feel more stress or pressure. ...
  • Urban areas tend to be more expensive to live in. ...
  • Houses are more compact in urban areas. ...
  • There are often fewer green spaces in a town or city.

Does urbanization cause poverty? ›

Overall, because urbanization can impact economic growth, then it can also impact poverty. Urbanization affects poverty through many different channels, for example, migration from rural to urban. This migration comes from the wage gap between urban and rural areas.

Is convenience a positive effect of urbanization? ›

Positive Effects of Urbanization

Urbanization creates convenience. It provides better education and employment opportunities. Better economy. Citizens get a better social life.

Which of the following was not a cause of urbanization? ›

Agriculture is not a cause of urbanization in India. Urbanization is happening at a very faster pace in India. It is a major contributor to the country's economy. However, rise in urbanization in India is causing many problems such as environmental damage, decreased standard of living, increasing slum areas, and more.

What is urbanization in geography? ›

Urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities. Urbanisation occurs because people move from rural areas (countryside) to urban areas (towns and cities). This usually occurs when a country is still developing.

What were 5 positive effects of the Industrial Revolution? ›

What Are the Pros of the Industrial Revolution?
  • It increased job opportunities. ...
  • It inspired innovation. ...
  • Production levels increased. ...
  • Competition was created. ...
  • It improved processes in virtually any sector. ...
  • It reduced the influences of borders. ...
  • It changed the world from being a rural culture to an urban culture.
22 Jun 2017

What are the positive and negative effects of industry? ›

The positive include cheaper clothes, more job opportunities, and improvement in transportation. And the negative would include exploitation of women and children, workers work long hours and environmental damages. These are just a few that I believe had an impact on the Industrial Revolution.

What is urbanization in history? ›

Urbanization is the process by which rural communities grow to form cities, or urban centers, and, by extension, the growth and expansion of those cities. Urbanization began in ancient Mesopotamia in the Uruk Period (4300-3100 BCE) for reasons scholars have not yet agreed on.

What is urbanisation example? ›

What is urbanization example? The Asia-Pacific region is a great example of urbanization, as it contains over half of the word's population of city dwellers.

Is urbanisation good for the environment? ›

Thus, urbanisation can reduce the urban footprint (Wan, 2012). High urban density helps the environment. High density of people makes public transport more viable and trips much shorter, reducing pollution in to the atmosphere.

What is urbanization Class 11? ›

Hint: Urbanisation refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas, the decrease in the proportion of people living in rural areas, and the ways in which societies adapt to this change. Complete answer: Urbanization refers to the increasing number of people that live in urban areas.

What is urbanization Class 9? ›

The process of converting rural areas into urban areas by providing various facilities like of urban area is known as urbanization.

What is meant by urbanisation Class 8? ›

Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban areas. The process of urbanization affects all sizes of settlements, so villages gradually grow to become small towns, smaller towns become larger towns, and large towns become cities.

What is urbanization PDF? ›

Urbanization is the way the population shift from rural to urban areas, "the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas", and the ways in which each society adapts to the change. Exploratory research method was used, secondary data were collected and critically analyzed..

How does urbanisation affect population? ›

Urbanization can increase population density by restricting animal movement, increasing available forage, or decreasing competition by reducing the population size of competitors (e.g., Crooks and Soulé 1999, Prange et al. 2003, Riley et al. 2006).

Does urbanization cause air pollution? ›

Using a cross-sectional data of 282 cities, Lin and Zhu found that the urbanization process has a significant and negative effect on air pollutant concentration, which means that cities with higher urbanization rate tend to have lower air pollutant concentration, including SO2, PM2.5 and PM10 (Lin and Zhu, 2018).

What are the effects of urbanisation PDF? ›

Due to uncontrolled urbanization in India, environmental degradation has been occurring very rapidly and causing many problems like land insecurity, worsening water quality, excessive air pollution, noise and the problems of waste disposal.

How does urbanization affect food? ›

Amongst the consequences of rapid urbanisation, there has been a shift in production patterns of food. It has been shown that urbanisation is highly correlated with access to processed foodstuffs, which have higher sugar levels (Popkin & Nielsen, 2003. The sweetening of the world's diet.

What is urbanization and its effect on society BYJU's? ›

Urbanization is a process whereby populations move from rural to urban areas, enabling cities and towns to grow. It can also be termed as a progressive increase in the number of people living in towns and cities.

What are the causes of urbanization Upsc? ›

Employment opportunities, educational institutions and urban lifestyle are the main pull factors. Poor living conditions, lack of educational and economic opportunities and poor health care facilities are the main push factors.

What are three negative effects of urbanization? ›

Poor air and water quality, insufficient water availability, waste-disposal problems, and high energy consumption are exacerbated by the increasing population density and demands of urban environments. Strong city planning will be essential in managing these and other difficulties as the world's urban areas swell.

What are the negative impacts of urbanisation on the environment? ›

Urbanization often results in deforestation, habitat loss, and the extraction of freshwater from the environment, which can decrease biodiversity and alter species ranges and interactions.

What were some of the negative effects of urbanization quizlet? ›

Negative effects of urbanization: poor sanitation (no water disposal, garbage build up), increased crime, poor living conditions (slums etc.) Known as the "Father of Skyscrapers," this man helped make buildings and cities bigger with steel supports.

What are the positive effects of industrialization? ›

The Industrial Revolution had many positive effects. Among those was an increase in wealth, the production of goods, and the standard of living. People had access to healthier diets, better housing, and cheaper goods. In addition, education increased during the Industrial Revolution.

What are the causes of urbanisation? ›

Industrialization: More people have been attracted to move from rural to urban areas on account of improved employment opportunities. Commercialization:Better commercial opportunities and returns compared to rural areas.

What good is urbanization? ›

When properly planned and managed, urbanization can reduce poverty and inequality by improving employment opportunities and quality of life, including through better education and health.

Which of these is not a positive effect of urbanization? ›

Exploitation of resources

Was this answer helpful?

Is urbanization good or bad? ›

While moving to a city offers individuals more opportunities to improve their living conditions, the high cost of living and competition for livelihoods can also trap people in poverty. Rapid and unplanned urbanization can also quickly lead to urban violence and social unrest.

What are three environmental negative effects of urban sprawl? ›

Urban sprawl, a particular form of urban development, is a driver of several major challenges facing cities. These challenges include greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, road congestion and lack of affordable housing.

What are the effects of urbanization on the society? ›

In addition, urbanization has many adverse effects on the structure of society as gigantic concentrations of people compete for limited resources. Rapid housing construction leads to overcrowding and slums, which experience major problems such as poverty, poor sanitation, unemployment and high crime rates.

What describes an effect of urbanization? ›

Urbanization also affects the broader regional environments. Regions downwind from large industrial complexes also see increases in the amount of precipitation, air pollution, and the number of days with thunderstorms. Urban areas affect not only the weather patterns, but also the runoff patterns for water.

What are the impacts of rapid Urbanisation in Africa? ›

Negative Effects of Rapid Urbanisation in Africa

electricity supply, poor access to water supplies, little sanitation and insecure living conditions.

What does the word urbanization mean in this article quizlet? ›

Urbanization. Urbanization is the increase in the population or proportion of people living in a region within cities and towns.

What were 5 positive effects of the Industrial Revolution? ›

What Are the Pros of the Industrial Revolution?
  • It increased job opportunities. ...
  • It inspired innovation. ...
  • Production levels increased. ...
  • Competition was created. ...
  • It improved processes in virtually any sector. ...
  • It reduced the influences of borders. ...
  • It changed the world from being a rural culture to an urban culture.
22 Jun 2017

What are the positive and negative effects of industry? ›

The positive include cheaper clothes, more job opportunities, and improvement in transportation. And the negative would include exploitation of women and children, workers work long hours and environmental damages. These are just a few that I believe had an impact on the Industrial Revolution.

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